skip to main content

Title: Mysterious odd radio circle near the large magellanic cloud – an intergalactic supernova remnant?
ABSTRACT We report the discovery of J0624–6948, a low-surface brightness radio ring, lying between the Galactic Plane and the large magellanic cloud (LMC). It was first detected at 888 MHz with the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP), and with a diameter of ∼196 arcsec. This source has phenomenological similarities to odd radio circles (ORCs). Significant differences to the known ORCs – a flatter radio spectral index, the lack of a prominent central galaxy as a possible host, and larger apparent size – suggest that J0624–6948 may be a different type of object. We argue that the most plausible explanation for J0624–6948 is an intergalactic supernova remnant due to a star that resided in the LMC outskirts that had undergone a single-degenerate type Ia supernova, and we are seeing its remnant expand into a rarefied, intergalactic environment. We also examine if a massive star or a white dwarf binary ejected from either galaxy could be the supernova progenitor. Finally, we consider several other hypotheses for the nature of the object, including the jets of an active galactic nucleus (30Dor) or the remnant of a nearby stellar super-flare.  more » « less
Award ID(s):
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; more » ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; « less
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Page Range / eLocation ID:
265 to 284
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Abstract We present the discovery and timing of the young (age ∼28.6 kyr) pulsar PSR J0837–2454. Based on its high latitude ( b = 98) and dispersion measure (DM = 143 pc cm −3 ), the pulsar appears to be at a z -height of >1 kpc above the Galactic plane, but near the edge of our Galaxy. This is many times the observed scale height of the canonical pulsar population, which suggests this pulsar may have been born far out of the plane. If accurate, the young age and high z -height imply that this is the first pulsar known to be born from a runaway O/B star. In follow-up imaging with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA), we detect the pulsar with a flux density S 1400 = 0.18 ± 0.05 mJy. We do not detect an obvious supernova remnant around the pulsar in our ATCA data, but we detect a colocated, low-surface-brightness region of ∼15 extent in archival Galactic and Extragalactic All-sky MWA Survey data. We also detect colocated H α emission from the Southern H α Sky Survey Atlas. Distance estimates based on these two detections come out to ∼0.9 kpc and ∼0.2 kpc, respectively, both of which are much smaller than the distance predicted by the NE2001 model (6.3 kpc) and YMW model (>25 kpc) and place the pulsar much closer to the plane of the Galaxy. If the pulsar/remnant association holds, this result also highlights the inherent difficulty in the classification of transients as “Galactic” (pulsar) or “extragalactic” (fast radio burst) toward the Galactic anticenter based solely on the modeled Galactic electron contribution to a detection. 
    more » « less
  2. Abstract We present new discoveries and results from long-term timing of 72 pulsars discovered in the Pulsar Arecibo L -band Feed Array (PALFA) survey, including precise determination of astrometric and spin parameters, and flux density and scatter broadening measurements at 1.4 GHz. Notable discoveries include two young pulsars (characteristic ages ∼30 kyr) with no apparent supernova remnant associations, three mode-changing, 12 nulling and two intermittent pulsars. We detected eight glitches in five pulsars. Among them is PSR J1939+2609, an apparently old pulsar (characteristic age ∼1 Gy), and PSR J1954+2529, which likely belongs to a newly emerging class of binary pulsars. The latter is the only pulsar among the 72 that is clearly not isolated: a nonrecycled neutron star with a 931 ms spin period in an eccentric ( e = 0.114) wide ( P b = 82.7 days) orbit with a companion of undetermined nature having a minimum mass of ∼0.6 M ⊙ . Since operations at Arecibo ceased in 2020 August, we give a final tally of PALFA sky coverage, and compare its 207 pulsar discoveries to the known population. On average, they are 50% more distant than other Galactic plane radio pulsars; PALFA millisecond pulsars (MSPs) have twice the dispersion measure per unit spin period than the known population of MSP in the plane. The four intermittent pulsars discovered by PALFA more than double the population of such objects, which should help to improve our understanding of pulsar magnetosphere physics. The statistics for these, rotating radio transients, and nulling pulsars suggest that there are many more of these objects in the Galaxy than was previously thought. 
    more » « less

    We probe the environmental properties of X-ray supernova remnants (SNRs) at various points along their evolutionary journey, especially the S-T phase, and their conformance with theoretically derived models of SNR evolution. The remnant size is used as a proxy for the age of the remnant. Our data set includes 34 Milky Way, 59 Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), and 5 Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) SNRs. We select remnants that have been definitively typed as either core-collapse (CC) or Type Ia supernovae, with well-defined size estimates, and a thermal X-ray flux measured over the entire remnant. A catalog of SNR size and X-ray luminosity is presented and plotted, with ambient density and age estimates from the literature. Model remnants with a given density, in the Sedov-Taylor (S-T) phase, are overplotted on the diameter-versus-luminosity plot, allowing the evolutionary state and physical properties of SNRs to be compared to each other, and to theoretical models. We find that small, young remnants are predominantly Type Ia remnants or high luminosity CCs, suggesting that many CC SNRs are not detected until after they have emerged from the progenitor’s wind-blown bubble. An examination of the distribution of SNR diameters in the Milky Way and LMC reveals that LMC SNRs must be evolving in an ambient medium which is 30 per cent as dense as that in the Milky Way. This is consistent with ambient density estimates for the Galaxy and LMC.

    more » « less

    We present new radio continuum images and a source catalogue from the MeerKAT survey in the direction of the Small Magellanic Cloud. The observations, at a central frequency of 1.3 GHz across a bandwidth of 0.8 GHz, encompass a field of view ∼7° × 7° and result in images with resolution of 8 arcsec. The median broad-band Stokes I image Root Mean Squared noise value is ∼11 μJy beam−1. The catalogue produced from these images contains 108 330 point sources and 517 compact extended sources. We also describe a UHF (544–1088 MHz) single pointing observation. We report the detection of a new confirmed Supernova Remnant (SNR; MCSNR J0100–7211) with an X-ray magnetar at its centre and 10 new SNR candidates. This is in addition to the detection of 21 previously confirmed SNRs and two previously noted SNR candidates. Our new SNR candidates have typical surface brightness an order of magnitude below those previously known, and on the whole they are larger. The high sensitivity of the MeerKAT survey also enabled us to detect the bright end of the SMC Planetary Nebulae (PNe) sample – point-like radio emission is associated with 38 of 102 optically known PNe, of which 19 are new detections. Lastly, we present the detection of three foreground radio stars amidst 11 circularly polarized sources, and a few examples of morphologically interesting background radio galaxies from which the radio ring galaxy ESO 029–G034 may represent a new type of radio object.

    more » « less

    One of the key processes driving galaxy evolution during the Cosmic Dawn is supernova feedback. This likely helps regulate star formation inside of galaxies, but it can also drive winds that influence the large-scale intergalactic medium. Here, we present a simple semi-analytic model of supernova-driven galactic winds and explore the contributions of different phases of galaxy evolution to cosmic metal enrichment in the high-redshift (z ≳ 6) Universe. We show that models calibrated to the observed galaxy luminosity function at z ∼ 6–8 have filling factors $\sim 1{{\%}}$ at z ∼ 6 and $\sim 0.1{{\%}}$ at z ∼ 12, with different star formation prescriptions providing about an order of magnitude uncertainty. Despite the small fraction of space filled by winds, these scenarios predict an upper limit to the abundance of metal-line absorbers in quasar spectra at $z \gtrsim 5$ which is comfortably above that currently observed. We also consider enrichment through winds driven by Pop III star formation in minihalos. We find that these can dominate the total filling factor at $z \gtrsim 10$ and even compete with winds from normal galaxies at z ∼ 6, at least in terms of the total enriched volume. But these regions have much lower overall metallicities, because each one is generated by a small burst of star formation. Finally, we show that Compton cooling of these supernova-driven winds at $z \gtrsim 6$ has only a small effect on the cosmic microwave background.

    more » « less