Ontology Modelling of Industrial Control System Ethical Hacking
Industrial control systems (ICS) include systems that control industrial processes in critical infrastructure such as electric grids, nuclear power plants, manufacturing plans, water treatment systems, pharmaceutical plants, and building automation systems. ICS represent complex systems that contain an abundance of unique devices all of which may hold different types of software, including applications, firmware and operating systems. Due to their ability to control physical infrastructure, ICS have more and more become targets of cyber-attacks, increasing the risk of serious damage, negative financial impact, disruption to business operations, disruption to communities, and even the loss of life. Ethical hacking represents one way to test the security of ICS. Ethical hacking consists of using a cyber-attacker's perspective and a variety of cybersecurity tools to actively discover vulnerabilities and entry points for potential cyber-attacks. However, ICS ethical hacking represents a difficult task due to the wide variety of devices found on ICS networks. Most ethical hackers do not hold expertise or knowledge about ICS hardware, device computing elements, protocols, vulnerabilities found on these elements, and exploits used to exploit these vulnerabilities. Effective approaches are needed to reduce the complexity of ICS ethical hacking tasks. In this study, we use ontology modeling, a knowledge more »
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10327905
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International Conference on Cyber Warfare and Security
4. Black hat hackers use malicious exploits to circumvent security controls and take advantage of system vulnerabilities worldwide, costing the global economy over $450 billion annually. While many organizations are increasingly turning to cyber threat intelligence (CTI) to help prioritize their vulnerabilities, extant CTI processes are often criticized as being reactive to known exploits. One promising data source that can help develop proactive CTI is the vast and ever-evolving Dark Web. In this study, we adopted the computational design science paradigm to design a novel deep learning (DL)-based exploit-vulnerability attention deep structured semantic model (EVA-DSSM) that includes bidirectional processing and attention mechanisms to automatically link exploits from the Dark Web to vulnerabilities. We also devised a novel device vulnerability severity metric (DVSM) that incorporates the exploit post date and vulnerability severity to help cybersecurity professionals with their device prioritization and risk management efforts. We rigorously evaluated the EVA-DSSM against state-of-the-art non-DL and DL-based methods for short text matching on 52,590 exploit-vulnerability linkages across four testbeds: web application, remote, local, and denial of service. Results of these evaluations indicate that the proposed EVA-DSSM achieves precision at 1 scores 20% - 41% higher than non-DL approaches and 4% - 10% higher than DL-basedmore » 5. Black hat hackers use malicious exploits to circumvent security controls and take advantage of system vulnerabilities worldwide, costing the global economy over$450 billion annually. While many organizations are increasingly turning to cyber threat intelligence (CTI) to help prioritize their vulnerabilities, extant CTI processes are often criticized as being reactive to known exploits. One promising data source that can help develop proactive CTI is the vast and ever-evolving Dark Web. In this study, we adopted the computational design science paradigm to design a novel deep learning (DL)-based exploit-vulnerability attention deep structured semantic model (EVA-DSSM) that includes bidirectional processing and attention mechanisms to automatically link exploits from the Dark Web to vulnerabilities. We also devised a novel device vulnerability severity metric (DVSM) that incorporates the exploit post date and vulnerability severity to help cybersecurity professionals with their device prioritization and risk management efforts. We rigorously evaluated the EVA-DSSM against state-of-the-art non-DL and DL-based methods for short text matching on 52,590 exploit-vulnerability linkages across four testbeds: web application, remote, local, and denial of service. Results of these evaluations indicate that the proposed EVA-DSSM achieves precision at 1 scores 20%-41% higher than non-DL approaches and 4%-10% higher than DL-based approaches. We demonstrated themore »