- Stephens, Greg J
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- PLOS Computational Biology
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- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
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The scale of the whale: using video-tag data to evaluate sea-surface ice concentration from the perspective of individual Antarctic minke whalesAbstract Background Advances in biologging technology allow researchers access to previously unobservable behavioral states and movement patterns of marine animals. To relate behaviors with environmental variables, features must be evaluated at scales relevant to the animal or behavior. Remotely sensed environmental data, collected via satellites, often suffers from the effects of cloud cover and lacks the spatial or temporal resolution to adequately link with individual animal behaviors or behavioral bouts. This study establishes a new method for remotely and continuously quantifying surface ice concentration (SIC) at a scale relevant to individual whales using on-animal tag video data. Results Motion-sensing and video-recording suction cup tags were deployed on 7 Antarctic minke whales ( Balaenoptera bonaerensis ) around the Antarctic Peninsula in February and March of 2018. To compare the scale of camera-tag observations with satellite imagery, the area of view was simulated using camera-tag parameters. For expected conditions, we found the visible area maximum to be ~ 100m 2 which indicates that observations occur at an equivalent or finer scale than a single pixel of high-resolution visible spectrum satellite imagery. SIC was classified into one of six bins (0%, 1–20%, 21–40%, 41–60%, 61–80%, 81–100%) by two independent observers for the initial and finalmore »
Anthropogenic Change Alters Ecological Relationships via Interactive Changes in Stress Physiology and Behavior within and among OrganismsSynopsis Anthropogenic change has well-documented impacts on stress physiology and behavior across diverse taxonomic groups. Within individual organisms, physiological and behavioral traits often covary at proximate and ultimate timescales. In the context of global change, this means that impacts on physiology can have downstream impacts on behavior, and vice versa. Because all organisms interact with members of their own species and other species within their communities, the effects of humans on one organism can impose indirect effects on one or more other organisms, resulting in cascading effects across interaction networks. Human-induced changes in the stress physiology of one species and the downstream impacts on behavior can therefore interact with the physiological and behavioral responses of other organisms to alter emergent ecological phenomena. Here, we highlight three scenarios in which the stress physiology and behavior of individuals on different sides of an ecological relationship are interactively impacted by anthropogenic change. We discuss host–parasite/pathogen dynamics, predator–prey relationships, and beneficial partnerships (mutualisms and cooperation) in this framework, considering cases in which the effect of stressors on each type of network may be attenuated or enhanced by interactive changes in behavior and physiology. These examples shed light on the ways that stressors imposed atmore »
Repetitive action, resistance to environmental change and fine motor disruptions are hallmarks of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and other neurodevelopmental disorders, and vary considerably from individual to individual. In animal models, conventional behavioral phenotyping captures such fine-scale variations incompletely. Here we observed male and female C57BL/6J mice to methodically catalog adaptive movement over multiple days and examined two rodent models of developmental disorders against this dynamic baseline. We then investigated the behavioral consequences of a cerebellum-specific deletion in Tsc1 protein and a whole-brain knockout in Cntnap2 protein in mice. Both of these mutations are found in clinical conditions and have been associated with ASD.
We used advances in computer vision and deep learning, namely a generalized form of high-dimensional statistical analysis, to develop a framework for characterizing mouse movement on multiple timescales using a single popular behavioral assay, the open-field test. The pipeline takes virtual markers from pose estimation to find behavior clusters and generate wavelet signatures of behavior classes. We measured spatial and temporal habituation to a new environment across minutes and days, different types of self-grooming, locomotion and gait.
Both Cntnap2 knockouts and L7-Tsc1 mutants showed forelimb lag during gait. L7-Tsc1 mutants and Cntnap2 knockouts showed complexmore »
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Our automated pipeline for deep phenotyping successfully captures model-specific deviations in adaptation and movement as well as differences in the detailed structure of behavioral dynamics. The reported deficits indicate that deep phenotyping constitutes a robust set of ASD symptoms that may be considered for implementation in clinical settings as quantitative diagnosis criteria.
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