skip to main content

Title: Room temperature facile synthesis of olivine-Co 2 SiO 4 nanoparticles utilizing a mechanochemical method
Co 2 SiO 4 is a ceramic pigment and promising battery material of significant technological interest, as well as a model end-member of one of the most important mineral families in the Earth's crust and upper mantle. All previously developed methods for synthesis of Co 2 SiO 4 require high-temperature processing, which promotes grain growth, while the nanocrystalline form is required for some important technological applications. Here, we report a successful method for synthesizing nanocrystalline Co 2 SiO 4 via a simple and inexpensive high-energy ball milling mechanochemical process. Products of the synthesis were characterized by a combination of XRD and TEM, and their crystal structures and elemental compositions are reported.
; ; ; ;
Award ID(s):
Publication Date:
Journal Name:
RSC Advances
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
20687 to 20690
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Heterogeneous phase astrochemistry plays an important role in the synthesis of complex organic matter (COM) as found on comets and rocky body surfaces like asteroids, planetoids, moons and planets. The proposed catalytic model is based on two assumptions: (a) siliceous rocks in both crystalline or amorphous states show surface-exposed defective centers such as siloxyl (Si-O•) radicals; (b) the second phase is represented by gas phase CO molecules, an abundant C 1 building block found in space. By means of quantum chemistry; (DFT, PW6B95/def2-TZVPP); the surface of a siliceous rock in presence of CO is modeled by a simple POSS (polyhedral silsesquioxane) where a siloxyl (Si-O•) radical is present. Four CO molecules have been consecutively added to the Si-O• radical and to the nascent polymeric CO (pCO) chain. The first CO insertion shows no activation free energy with ΔG 200 K = −21.7 kcal/mol forming the SiO-CO• radical. The second and third CO insertions show Δ G 200 K ‡ ≤ 10.5 kcal/mol. Ring closure of the SiO-CO-CO• (oxalic anhydride) moiety as well as of the SiO-CO-CO-CO• system (di-cheto form of oxetane) are thermodynamically disfavored. The last CO insertion shows no free energy of activation resulting in the stable five membermore »pCO ring, precursor to 1,4-epoxy-1,2,3-butanone. Hydrogenation reactions of the pCO have been considered on the SiO oxygen or on the carbons and oxygens of the pCO chains. The formation of the reactive aldehyde SiO-CHO on the siliceous surface is possible. In principle, the complete hydrogenation of the (CO) 1−4 series results in the formation of methanol and polyols. Furthermore, all the SiO-pCO intermediates and the lactone 1,4-epoxy-1,2,3-butanone product in its radical form can be important building blocks in further polymerization reactions and/or open ring reactions with H (aldehydes, polyols) or CN (chetonitriles), resulting in highly reactive multi-functional compounds contributing to COM synthesis.« less
  2. Abstract Monolayer (ML) molybdenum disulfide (MoS₂) is a novel 2-dimensional (2D) semiconductor whose properties have many applications in devices. Despite its potential, ML MoS₂ is limited in its use due to its degradation under exposure to ambient air. Therefore, studies of possible degradation prevention methods are important. It is well established that air humidity plays a major role in the degradation. In this paper, we investigate the effects of substrate hydrophobicity on the degradation of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) grown ML MoS 2 . We use optical microscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and Raman mapping to investigate the degradation of ML MoS 2 grown on SiO 2 and Si 3 N 4 that are hydrophilic and hydrophobic substrates, respectively. Our results show that the degradation of ML MoS₂ on Si 3 N 4 is significantly less than the degradation on SiO 2 . These results show that using hydrophobic substrates to grow 2D transition metal dichalcogenide ML materials may diminish ambient degradation and enable improved protocols for device manufacturing.
  3. Weakly Coordinating Anions (WCAs) containing electron deficient delocalized anionic fragments that are reasonably inert allow for the isolation of strong electrophiles. Perfluorinated borates, perfluorinated aluminum alkoxides, and halogenated carborane anions are a few families of WCAs that are commonly used in synthesis. Application of similar design strategies to oxide surfaces is challenging. This paper describes the reaction of Al(OR F ) 3 *PhF (R F = C(CF 3 ) 3 ) with silica partially dehydroxylated at 700 °C (SiO 2-700 ) to form the bridging silanol Si–OH⋯Al(OR F ) 3 ( 1 ). DFT calculations using small clusters to model 1 show that the gas phase acidity (GPA) of the bridging silanol is 43.2 kcal mol −1 lower than the GPA of H 2 SO 4 , but higher than the strongest carborane acids, suggesting that deprotonated 1 would be a WCA. Reactions of 1 with NOct 3 show that 1 forms weaker ion-pairs than classical WCAs, but stronger ion-pairs than carborane or borate anions. Though 1 forms stronger ion-pairs than these state-of-the-art WCAs, 1 reacts with alkylsilanes to form silylium type surface species. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first example of a silylium supported onmore »derivatized silica.« less
  4. Pure methane (CH 4 ) ices processed by energetic electrons under ultra-high vacuum conditions to simulate secondary electrons formed via galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) penetrating interstellar ice mantles have been shown to produce an array of complex hydrocarbons with the general formulae: C n H 2n+2 ( n = 4–8), C n H 2n ( n = 3–9), C n H 2n−2 ( n = 3–9), C n H 2n−4 ( n = 4–9), and C n H 2n−6 ( n = 6–7). By monitoring the in situ chemical evolution of the ice combined with temperature programmed desorption (TPD) studies and tunable single photon ionization coupled to a reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer, specific isomers of C 3 H 4 , C 3 H 6 , C 4 H 4 , and C 4 H 6 were probed. These experiments confirmed the synthesis of methylacetylene (CH 3 CCH), propene (CH 3 CHCH 2 ), cyclopropane (c-C 3 H 6 ), vinylacetylene (CH 2 CHCCH), 1-butyne (HCCC 2 H 5 ), 2-butyne (CH 3 CCCH 3 ), 1,2-butadiene (H 2 CCCH(CH 3 )), and 1,3-butadiene (CH 2 CHCHCH 2 ) with yields of 2.17 ± 0.95 × 10 −4 , 3.7 ±more »1.5 × 10 −3 , 1.23 ± 0.77 × 10 −4 , 1.28 ± 0.65 × 10 −4 , 4.01 ± 1.98 × 10 −5 , 1.97 ± 0.98 × 10 −4 , 1.90 ± 0.84 × 10 −5 , and 1.41 ± 0.72 × 10 −4 molecules eV −1 , respectively. Mechanistic studies exploring the formation routes of methylacetylene, propene, and vinylacetylene were also conducted, and revealed the additional formation of the 1,2,3-butatriene isomer. Several of the above isomers, methylacetylene, propene, vinylacetylene, and 1,3-butadiene, have repeatedly been shown to be important precursors in the formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), but until now their interstellar synthesis has remained elusive.« less
  5. Palladium catalyzed cross-coupling reactions represent a significant advancement in contemporary organic synthesis as these reactions are of strategic importance in the area of pharmaceutical drug discovery and development. Supported palladium-based catalysts are highly sought-after in carbon–carbon bond forming catalytic processes to ensure catalyst recovery and reuse while preventing product contamination. This paper reports the development of heterogeneous Pd-based bimetallic catalysts supported on fumed silica that have high activity and selectivity matching those of homogeneous catalysts, eliminating the catalyst's leaching and sintering and allowing efficient recycling of the catalysts. Palladium and base metal (Cu, Ni or Co) contents of less than 1.0 wt% loading are deposited on a mesoporous fumed silica support (surface area SA BET = 350 m 2 g −1 ) using strong electrostatic adsorption (SEA) yielding homogeneously alloyed nanoparticles with an average size of 1.3 nm. All bimetallic catalysts were found to be highly active toward Suzuki cross-coupling (SCC) reactions with superior activity and stability for the CuPd/SiO 2 catalyst. A low CuPd/SiO 2 loading (Pd: 0.3 mol%) completes the conversion of bromobenzene and phenylboronic acid to biphenyl in 30 minutes under ambient conditions in water/ethanol solvent. In contrast, monometallic Pd/SiO 2 (Pd: 0.3 mol%) completes the samemore »reaction in three hours under the same conditions. The combination of Pd with the base metals helps in retaining the Pd 0 status by charge donation from the base metals to Pd, thus lowering the activation energy of the aryl halide oxidative addition step. Along with its exceptional activity, CuPd/SiO 2 exhibits excellent recycling performance with a turnover frequency (TOF) of 280 000 h −1 under microwave reaction conditions at 60 °C. Our study demonstrates that SEA is an excellent synthetic strategy for depositing ultra-small Pd-based bimetallic nanoparticles on porous silica for SCC. This avenue not only provides highly active and sintering-resistant catalysts but also significantly lowers Pd contents in the catalysts without compromising catalytic activity, making the catalysts very practical for large-scale applications.« less