skip to main content

This content will become publicly available on February 3, 2023

Title: Genetic characterization and curation of diploid A-genome wheat species
Abstract A-genome diploid wheats represent the earliest domesticated and cultivated wheat species in the Fertile Crescent and include the donor of the wheat A sub-genome. The A-genome species encompass the cultivated einkorn (Triticum monococcum L. subsp. monococcum), wild einkorn (T. monococcum L. subsp. aegilopoides (Link) Thell.), and Triticum urartu. We evaluated the collection of 930 accessions in the Wheat Genetics Resource Center (WGRC) using genotyping by sequencing and identified 13,860 curated single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Genomic analysis detected misclassified and genetically identical (>99%) accessions, with most of the identical accessions originating from the same or nearby locations. About 56% (n = 520) of the WGRC A-genome species collections were genetically identical, supporting the need for genomic characterization for effective curation and maintenance of these collections. Population structure analysis confirmed the morphology-based classifications of the accessions and reflected the species geographic distributions. We also showed that T. urartu is the closest A-genome diploid to the A-subgenome in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) through phylogenetic analysis. Population analysis within the wild einkorn group showed three genetically distinct clusters, which corresponded with wild einkorn races α, β, and γ described previously. The T. monococcum genome-wide FST scan identified candidate genomic regions harboring a domestication selection signature at more » the Non-brittle rachis 1 (Btr1) locus on the short arm of chromosome 3Am at ∼70 Mb. We established an A-genome core set (79 accessions) based on allelic diversity, geographical distribution, and available phenotypic data. The individual species core set maintained at least 79% of allelic variants in the A-genome collection and constituted a valuable genetic resource to improve wheat and domesticated einkorn in breeding programs. « less
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Award ID(s):
Publication Date:
Journal Name:
Plant Physiology
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
2101 to 2114
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Powdery mildew caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt) is one of many severe diseases that threaten bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) yield and quality worldwide. The discovery and deployment of powdery mildew resistance genes (Pm) can prevent this disease epidemic in wheat. In a previous study, we transferred the powdery mildew resistance gene Pm57 from Aegilops searsii into common wheat and cytogenetically mapped the gene in a chromosome region with the fraction length (FL) 0.75–0.87, which represents 12% segment of the long arm of chromosome 2Ss#1. In this study, we performed RNA-seq using RNA extracted from leaf samples of three infected and mock-infected wheat-Ae. searsii 2Ss#1 introgression lines at 0, 12, 24, and 48 h after inoculation with Bgt isolates. Then we designed 79 molecular markers based on transcriptome sequences and physically mapped them to Ae. searsii chromosome 2Ss#1- in seven intervals. We used these markers to identify 46 wheat-Ae. searsii 2Ss#1 recombinants induced by ph1b, a deletion mutant of pairing homologous (Ph) genes. After analyzing the 46 ph1b-induced 2Ss#1L recombinants in the region where Pm57 is located with different Bgt-responses, we physically mapped Pm57 gene on the long arm of 2Ss#1 in a 5.13 Mb genomic region,more »which was flanked by markers X67593 (773.72 Mb) and X62492 (778.85 Mb). By comparative synteny analysis of the corresponding region on chromosome 2B in Chinese Spring (T. aestivum L.) with other model species, we identified ten genes that are putative plant defense-related (R) genes which includes six coiled-coil nucleotide-binding site-leucine-rich repeat (CNL), three nucleotide-binding site-leucine-rich repeat (NL) and a leucine-rich receptor-like repeat (RLP) encoding proteins. This study will lay a foundation for cloning of Pm57, and benefit the understanding of interactions between resistance genes of wheat and powdery mildew pathogens.« less
  2. Breeding of agricultural crops adapted to climate change and resistant to diseases and pests is hindered by a limited gene pool because of domestication and thousands of years of human selection. One way to increase genetic variation is chromosome-mediated gene transfer from wild relatives by cross hybridization. In the case of wheat ( Triticum aestivum ), the species of genus Aegilops are a particularly attractive source of new genes and alleles. However, during the evolution of the Aegilops and Triticum genera, diversification of the D-genome lineage resulted in the formation of diploid C, M, and U genomes of Aegilops . The extent of structural genome alterations, which accompanied their evolution and speciation, and the shortage of molecular tools to detect Aegilops chromatin hamper gene transfer into wheat. To investigate the chromosome structure and help develop molecular markers with a known physical position that could improve the efficiency of the selection of desired introgressions, we developed single-gene fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) maps for M- and U-genome progenitors, Aegilops comosa and Aegilops umbellulata , respectively. Forty-three ortholog genes were located on 47 loci in Ae. comosa and on 52 loci in Ae. umbellulata using wheat cDNA probes. The results obtained showedmore »that M-genome chromosomes preserved collinearity with those of wheat, excluding 2 and 6M containing an intrachromosomal rearrangement and paracentric inversion of 6ML, respectively. While Ae. umbellulata chromosomes 1, 3, and 5U maintained collinearity with wheat, structural reorganizations in 2, 4, 6, and 7U suggested a similarity with the C genome of Aegilops markgrafii . To develop molecular markers with exact physical positions on chromosomes of Aegilops , the single-gene FISH data were validated in silico using DNA sequence assemblies from flow-sorted M- and U-genome chromosomes. The sequence similarity search of cDNA sequences confirmed 44 out of the 47 single-gene loci in Ae. comosa and 40 of the 52 map positions in Ae. umbellulata . Polymorphic regions, thus, identified enabled the development of molecular markers, which were PCR validated using wheat- Aegilops disomic chromosome addition lines. The single-gene FISH-based approach allowed the development of PCR markers specific for cytogenetically mapped positions on Aegilops chromosomes, substituting as yet unavailable segregating map. The new knowledge and resources will support the efforts for the introgression of Aegilops genes into wheat and their cloning.« less
  3. Hermaphroditic (perfect) flowers were a key trait in grapevine domestication, enabling a drastic increase in yields due to the efficiency of self-pollination in the domesticated grapevine ( Vitis vinifera L. ssp. vinifera ). In contrast, all extant wild Vitis species are dioecious, each plant having only male or female flowers. In this study, we identified the male (M) and female (f) haplotypes of the sex-determining region (SDR) in the wild grapevine species V. cinerea and confirmed the boundaries of the SDR. We also demonstrated that the SDR and its boundaries are precisely conserved across the Vitis genus using shotgun resequencing data of 556 wild and domesticated accessions from North America, East Asia, and Europe. A high linkage disequilibrium was found at the SDR in all wild grape species, while different recombination signatures were observed along the hermaphrodite (H) haplotype of 363 cultivated accessions, revealing two distinct H haplotypes, named H1 and H2. To further examine the H2 haplotype, we sequenced the genome of two grapevine cultivars, 'Riesling' and 'Chardonnay'. By reconstructing the first two H2 haplotypes, we estimated the divergence time between H1 and H2 haplotypes at ∼6 million years ago, which predates the domestication of grapevine (∼8,000 y ago).more »Our findings emphasize the important role of recombination suppression in maintaining dioecy in wild grape species and lend additional support to the hypothesis that at least two independent recombination events led to the reversion to hermaphroditism in grapevine.« less
  4. Abstract

    Genebanks are valuable resources for crop improvement through the acquisition,ex-situconservation and sharing of unique germplasm among plant breeders and geneticists. With over seven million existing accessions and increasing storage demands and costs, genebanks need efficient characterization and curation to make them more accessible and usable and to reduce operating costs, so that the crop improvement community can most effectively leverage this vast resource of untapped novel genetic diversity. However, the sharing and inconsistent documentation of germplasm often results in unintentionally duplicated collections with poor characterization and many identical accessions that can be hard or impossible to identify without passport information and unmatched accession identifiers. Here we demonstrate the use of genotypic information from these accessions using a cost-effective next generation sequencing platform to find and remove duplications. We identify and characterize over 50% duplicated accessions both within and across genebank collections ofAegilops tauschii, an important wild relative of wheat and source of genetic diversity for wheat improvement. We present a pipeline to identify and remove identical accessions within and among genebanks and curate globally unique accessions. We also show how this approach can also be applied to future collection efforts to avoid the accumulation of identical material. When coordinatedmore »across global genebanks, this approach will ultimately allow for cost effective and efficient management of germplasm and better stewarding of these valuable resources.

    « less
  5. Abstract Rye ( Secale cereale L.) is an exceptionally climate-resilient cereal crop, used extensively to produce improved wheat varieties via introgressive hybridization and possessing the entire repertoire of genes necessary to enable hybrid breeding. Rye is allogamous and only recently domesticated, thus giving cultivated ryes access to a diverse and exploitable wild gene pool. To further enhance the agronomic potential of rye, we produced a chromosome-scale annotated assembly of the 7.9-gigabase rye genome and extensively validated its quality by using a suite of molecular genetic resources. We demonstrate applications of this resource with a broad range of investigations. We present findings on cultivated rye’s incomplete genetic isolation from wild relatives, mechanisms of genome structural evolution, pathogen resistance, low-temperature tolerance, fertility control systems for hybrid breeding and the yield benefits of rye–wheat introgressions.