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Title: Brain Tissue-Derived Extracellular Vesicle Mediated Therapy in the Neonatal Ischemic Brain
Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy (HIE) in the brain is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in neonates and can lead to irreparable tissue damage and cognition. Thus, investigating key mediators of the HI response to identify points of therapeutic intervention has significant clinical potential. Brain repair after HI requires highly coordinated injury responses mediated by cell-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs). Studies show that stem cell-derived EVs attenuate the injury response in ischemic models by releasing neuroprotective, neurogenic, and anti-inflammatory factors. In contrast to 2D cell cultures, we successfully isolated and characterized EVs from whole brain rat tissue (BEV) to study the therapeutic potential of endogenous EVs. We showed that BEVs decrease cytotoxicity in an ex vivo oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) brain slice model of HI in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The minimum therapeutic dosage was determined to be 25 μg BEVs with a therapeutic application time window of 4–24 h post-injury. At this therapeutic dosage, BEV treatment increased anti-inflammatory cytokine expression. The morphology of microglia was also observed to shift from an amoeboid, inflammatory phenotype to a restorative, anti-inflammatory phenotype between 24–48 h of BEV exposure after OGD injury, indicating a shift in phenotype following BEV treatment. These results demonstrate the use of OWH brain slices to facilitate understanding of BEV activity and therapeutic potential in complex brain pathologies for treating neurological injury in neonates.  more » « less
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International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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