Abstract Control over the copy number and nanoscale positioning of quantum dots (QDs) is critical to their application to functional nanomaterials design. However, the multiple non-specific binding sites intrinsic to the surface of QDs have prevented their fabrication into multi-QD assemblies with programmed spatial positions. To overcome this challenge, we developed a general synthetic framework to selectively attach spatially addressable QDs on 3D wireframe DNA origami scaffolds using interfacial control of the QD surface. Using optical spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulation, we investigated the fabrication of monovalent QDs of different sizes using chimeric single-stranded DNA to control QD surface chemistry. By understanding the relationship between chimeric single-stranded DNA length and QD size, we integrated single QDs into wireframe DNA origami objects and visualized the resulting QD-DNA assemblies using electron microscopy. Using these advances, we demonstrated the ability to program arbitrary 3D spatial relationships between QDs and dyes on DNA origami objects by fabricating energy-transfer circuits and colloidal molecules. Our design and fabrication approach enables the geometric control and spatial addressing of QDs together with the integration of other materials including dyes to fabricate hybrid materials for functional nanoscale photonic devices.
This content will become publicly available on July 1, 2023
Strategies for Controlling the Spatial Orientation of Single Molecules Tethered on DNA Origami Templates Physisorbed on Glass Substrates: Intercalation and Stretching
Nanoarchitectural control of matter is crucial for next-generation technologies. DNA origami templates are harnessed to accurately position single molecules; however, direct single molecule evidence is lacking regarding how well DNA origami can control the orientation of such molecules in three-dimensional space, as well as the factors affecting control. Here, we present two strategies for controlling the polar (θ) and in-plane azimuthal (ϕ) angular orientations of cyanine Cy5 single molecules tethered on rationally-designed DNA origami templates that are physically adsorbed (physisorbed) on glass substrates. By using dipolar imaging to evaluate Cy5′s orientation and super-resolution microscopy, the absolute spatial orientation of Cy5 is calculated relative to the DNA template. The sequence-dependent partial intercalation of Cy5 is discovered and supported theoretically using density functional theory and molecular dynamics simulations, and it is harnessed as our first strategy to achieve θ control for a full revolution with dispersion as small as ±4.5°. In our second strategy, ϕ control is achieved by mechanically stretching the Cy5 from its two tethers, being the dispersion ±10.3° for full stretching. These results can in principle be applied to any single molecule, expanding in this way the capabilities of DNA as a functional templating material for single-molecule orientation control. more »
- Award ID(s):
- Publication Date:
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Journal Name:
- International Journal of Molecular Sciences
- Page Range or eLocation-ID:
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
More Like this
Vibronic coupling between pigment molecules is believed to prolong coherences in photosynthetic pigment–protein complexes. Reproducing long-lived coherences using vibronically coupled chromophores in synthetic DNA constructs presents a biomimetic route to efficient artificial light harvesting. Here, we present two-dimensional (2D) electronic spectra of one monomeric Cy5 construct and two dimeric Cy5 constructs (0 bp and 1 bp between dyes) on a DNA scaffold and perform beating frequency analysis to interpret observed coherences. Power spectra of quantum beating signals of the dimers reveal high frequency oscillations that correspond to coherences between vibronic exciton states. Beating frequency maps confirm that these oscillations, 1270 cm −1 and 1545 cm −1 for the 0-bp dimer and 1100 cm −1 for the 1-bp dimer, are coherences between vibronic exciton states and that these coherences persist for ∼300 fs. Our observations are well described by a vibronic exciton model, which predicts the excitonic coupling strength in the dimers and the resulting molecular exciton states. The energy spacing between those states closely corresponds to the observed beat frequencies. MD simulations indicate that the dyes in our constructs lie largely internal to the DNA base stacking region, similar to the native design of biological light harvesting complexes. Observed coherencesmore »
Dense Super-Resolution Imaging of Molecular Orientation Via Joint Sparse Basis Deconvolution and Spatial PoolingIn single-molecule super-resolution microscopy, engineered point-spread functions (PSFs) are designed to efficiently encode new molecular properties, such as 3D orientation, into complex spatial features captured by a camera. To fully benefit from their optimality, algorithms must estimate multi-dimensional parameters such as molecular position and orientation in the presence of PSF overlap and model-experiment mismatches. Here, we present a novel joint sparse deconvolution algorithm based on the decomposition of fluorescence images into six basis images that characterize molecular orientation. The proposed algorithm exploits a group-sparsity structure across these basis images and applies a pooling strategy on corresponding spatial features for robust simultaneous estimates of the number, brightness, 2D position, and 3D orientation of fluorescent molecules. We demonstrate this method by imaging DNA transiently labeled with the intercalating dye YOYO-1. Imaging the position and orientation of each molecule reveals orientational order and disorder within DNA with nanoscale spatial precision.
DNA origami has garnered great attention due to its excellent programmability and precision. It offers a powerful means to create complex nanostructures which may not be possible by other methods. The macromolecular structures may be used as static templates for arranging proteins and other molecules. They are also capable of undergoing structural transformation in response to external signals, which may be exploited for sensing and actuation at the nanoscale. Such on-demand reconfigurations are executed mostly by DNA oligomers through base-pairing and/or strand displacement, demonstrating drastic shape changes between two different states, for example, open and close. Recent studies have developed new mechanisms to modulate the origami conformation in a controllable, progressive manner. Here we present several methods for conformational control of DNA origami nanostructures including chemical adducts and UV light as well as widely applied DNA oligomers. The detailed methods should be useful for beginners in the field of DNA nanotechnology.
DNA topology dictates emergent bulk elasticity and hindered macromolecular diffusion in DNA-dextran compositesPolymer architecture plays critical roles in both bulk rheological properties and microscale macromolecular dynamics in entangled polymer solutions and composites. Ring polymers, in particular, have been the topic of much debate due to the inability of the celebrated reptation model to capture their observed dynamics. Macrorheology and differential dynamic microscopy (DDM) are powerful methods to determine entangled polymer dynamics across scales; yet, they typically require different samples under different conditions, preventing direct coupling of bulk rheological properties to the underlying macromolecular dynamics. Here, we perform macrorheology on composites of highly overlapping DNA and dextran polymers, focusing on the role of DNA topology (rings versus linear chains) as well as the relative volume fractions of DNA and dextran. On the same samples under the same conditions, we perform DDM and single-molecule tracking on embedded fluorescent-labeled DNA molecules immediately before and after bulk measurements. We show DNA-dextran composites exhibit unexpected nonmonotonic dependences of bulk viscoelasticity and molecular-level transport properties on the fraction of DNA comprising the composites, with characteristics that are strongly dependent on the DNA topology. We rationalize our results as arising from stretching and bundling of linear DNA versus compaction, swelling, and threading of rings driven by dextran-mediated depletion interactions.