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Diabetes is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, especially cardiomyopathy, a condition in which the smooth muscles of the heart become thick and rigid, affecting the functioning of cardiomyocytes, the contractile cells of the heart. Uncontrolled elevated glucose levels over time can result in oxidative stress, which could lead to inflammation and altered epigenetic mechanisms. In the current study, we investigated whether hyperglycemia can modify cardiac function by directly affecting these changes in cardiomyocytes. To evaluate the adverse effect of high glucose, we measured the levels of gap junction protein, connexin 43, which is responsible for modulating cardiac electric activities and Troponin I, a part of the troponin complex in the heart muscles, commonly used as cardiac markers of ischemic heart disease. AC16 human cardiomyocyte cells were used in this study. Under hyperglycemic conditions, these cells demonstrated altered levels of connexin 43 and Troponin-I after 24 h of exposure. We also examined hyperglycemia induced changes in epigenetic markers: H3K9me1, Sirtuin-1 (SIRT1), and histone deacetylase (HDAC)-2 as well as in inflammatory and stress-related mediators, such as heat shock protein (HSP)-60, receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), toll-like receptor (TLR)-4, high mobility group box (HMGB)-1 and CXC chemokine receptor (CXCR)-4.more »
Type-II diabetes (T2D) patients affected by underlying hyperglycemic (high glucose/blood sugar) conditions often suffer from cardiac atrophy, resulting in tissue mass reduction and debilitating cardiac health. To understand pathophysiological mechanisms during progression of cardiac atrophy, a 3D bioprinted organoid platform was developed from a mixture of hydrogels containing human cardiac cells, including cardiomyocytes (CM), fibroblasts (CF) and endothelial cells (EC), to mimic the functionality of the in-vivo tissue. The organoids were cultured using normoglycemic- or hyperglycemic-conditions. The expression of essential biomarkers in these organoids, for myocardin (Myocd), troponin-I (TRP-I), fibroblast protein-1 (FSP-1) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) was confirmed. To assess the physiological cellular connections during hyperglycemia, the presence of Connexin-43 (CX-43) was assessed in the presence of a CX-43 blocker, gap26. Epigenomic tools were used to simultaneously interrogate histone-modifications by histone 3 lysine 9 mono-methylation (H3K9me1) along with the co-regulation of inflammatory mediators, such as the high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) and toll like receptor 4 (TLR4) in the cardiac organoids cultured using normal versus hyperglycemic conditions. Organoids exposed to high glucose showed an increased expression of H3K9me1 as well as inflammatory mediators HMGB1 and TLR4. Hyperglycemia also exhibited alterations in expression of Myocd and FSP-1 in the organoids, comparedmore »
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Cardiomyogenic differentiation of human bone marrow‐derived mesenchymal stem cell spheroids within electrospun collagen nanofiber mats
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