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Title: Tetranuclear and trinuclear copper( i ) pyrazolates as catalysts in copper mediated azide–alkyne cycloadditions (CuAAC)
Homoleptic, tetranuclear copper( i ) pyrazolates {[3,5-( t -Bu) 2 Pz]Cu} 4 , {[3-(CF 3 )-5-( t -Bu)Pz]Cu} 4 , and {[4-Br-3,5-( i -Pr) 2 Pz]Cu} 4 are excellent stand-alone catalysts for azide–alkyne cycloaddition reactions (CuAAC). This work demonstrates that a range of pyrazolates, including those with electron donating and electron-withdrawing groups to sterically demanding substituents on the pyrazolyl backbones, can serve as effective ligand supports on tetranuclear copper catalysts. However, in contrast to the tetramers and also highly fluorinated {[3,5-(CF 3 ) 2 Pz]Cu} 3 , trinuclear copper( i ) complexes such as {[3,5-( i -Pr) 2 Pz]Cu} 3 and {[3-(CF 3 )-5-(CH 3 )Pz]Cu} 3 supported by relatively electron rich pyrazolates display poor catalytic activity in CuAAC. The behavior and degree of aggregation of several of these copper( i ) pyrazolates in solution were examined using vapor pressure osmometry. Copper( i ) complexes such as {[3,5-(CF 3 ) 2 Pz]Cu} 3 and {[3-(CF 3 )-5-( t -Bu)Pz]Cu} 4 with electron withdrawing pyrazolates were found to break up in solution to different degrees producing smaller aggregates while those such as {[3,5-( i -Pr) 2 Pz]Cu} 3 and {[3,5-( t -Bu) 2 Pz]Cu} 4 with electron rich pyrazolates remain intact. more » In addition, kinetic experiments were performed to understand the unusual activity of tetranuclear copper( i ) pyrazolate systems. « less
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Publication Date:
Journal Name:
Dalton Transactions
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
375 to 383
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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  1. Described herein is the synthesis and photophysics of two tetranuclear copper complexes, {[3,5-(Pr i ) 2 ,4-(Br)Pz]Cu} 4 and {[3-(CF 3 ),5-(Bu t )Pz]Cu} 4 tailor-designed by manipulating the pyrazolyl ring substituents. Unlike their trinuclear analogues, the luminescence of the tetranuclear species is molecular (not supramolecular) in nature with extremely high solid-state quantum yields of ∼80% at room temperature.
  2. Abstract

    Non‐porous small molecule adsorbents such as {[3,5‐(CF3)2Pz]Cu}3(where Pz=pyrazolate) are an emerging class of materials that display attractive features for ethene−ethane separation. This work examines the chemistry of fluorinated copper(I) pyrazolates {[3,5‐(CF3)2Pz]Cu}3and {[4‐Br‐3,5‐(CF3)2Pz]Cu}3with much larger 1‐butene in both solution and solid state, and reports the isolation of rare 1‐butene complexes of copper(I), {[3,5‐(CF3)2Pz]Cu(H2C=CHC2H5)}2and {[4‐Br‐3,5‐(CF3)2Pz]Cu(H2C=CHC2H5)}2and their structural, spectroscopic, and computational data. The copper−butene adduct formation in solution involves olefin‐induced structural transformation of trinuclear copper(I) pyrazolates to dinuclear mixed‐ligand systems. Remarkably, larger 1‐butene is able to penetrate the dense solid material and to coordinate with copper(I) ions at high molar occupancy. A comparison to analogous ethene and propene complexes of copper(I) is also provided.

  3. HN(CH 2 CH 2 PR 2 ) 2 -ligated copper borohydride complexes, ( R PN H P)Cu(BH 4 ) (R = i Pr, Cy, t Bu), which can be prepared from ( R PN H P)CuBr and NaBH 4 , are capable of catalyzing the hydrogenation of aldehydes in an alcoholic solvent. More active hydrogenation catalysts are ( R PN H P)CuBr mixed with KO t Bu, allowing various aldehydes and ketones to be efficiently reduced to alcohols except those bearing a nitro, N -unprotected pyrrole, pyridine, or an ester group, or those prone to aldol condensation ( e.g. , 1-heptanal). Modifying the catalyst structure by replacing the NH group in ( i Pr PN H P)CuBr with an NMe group results in an inferior catalyst but preserves some catalytic activity. The hexanuclear copper hydride cluster, ( i Pr PN H P) 3 Cu 6 H 6 , is also competent in catalyzing the hydrogenation of aldehydes such as benzaldehyde and N -methyl-2-pyrrolecarboxaldehyde, albeit accompanied by decomposition pathways. The catalytic performance can be enhanced through the addition of a strong base or i Pr PN H P. The three catalytic systems likely share the same catalytically active species, which ismore »proposed to be a mononuclear copper hydride ( R PN H P)CuH with the NH group bound to copper.« less
  4. Described herein are the synthesis, structure, and photophysics of the iodo-substituted cyclic trinuclear copper( i ) complex, Cu 3 [4-I-3,5-(CF 3 ) 2 Pz] 3 supported by a highly-fluorinated pyrazolate in comparison with its previously reported 4-Br/4-Cl analogues. The crystal structure is stabilised by multiple supramolecular interactions of Cu 3 ⋯I and hydrogen/halogen bonding. The photophysical properties and supramolecular interactions are investigated experimentally/computationally for all three 4-halo complexes vis-à-vis relativistic effects.
  5. Copper( i ) and silver( i ) pyrazolate complexes {[3,5-(3,5-(CF 3 ) 2 Ph) 2 Pz]Cu} 3 and {[3,5-(3,5-(CF 3 ) 2 Ph) 2 Pz]Ag} 3 have been synthesized using the fluorinated 3,5-(diaryl)pyrazole 3,5-(3,5-(CF 3 ) 2 Ph) 2 PzH and copper( i ) oxide and silver( i ) oxide, respectively. The gold( i ) analog was obtained from a reaction between Au(THT)Cl and [3,5-(3,5-(CF 3 ) 2 Ph) 2 Pz]H/NaH. The X-ray crystal structures show that the coinage metal complexes {[3,5-(3,5-(CF 3 ) 2 Ph) 2 Pz]M} 3 (M = Cu, Ag, Au) are trinuclear in the solid state. They feature distorted nine-membered M 3 N 6 metallacyclic cores. The M–N distances follow Cu < Au < Ag, which is the trend expected from covalent radii of the corresponding coinage metal ions. The 3,5-(3,5-(CF 3 ) 2 Ph) 2 PzH forms hydrogen bonded trimers in the solid state that are further organized by π-stacking between aryl rings. Solid samples of {[3,5-(3,5-(CF 3 ) 2 Ph) 2 Pz]M} 3 display blue photoluminescence. The copper complex {[3,5-(3,5-(CF 3 ) 2 Ph) 2 Pz]Cu} 3 is an excellent catalyst for mediating azide–alkyne cycloaddition chemistry.