skip to main content

Title: Oral Administration of Water Extract from Euglena gracilis Alters the Intestinal Microbiota and Prevents Lung Carcinoma Growth in Mice
The antitumor effects of a partially purified water extract from Euglena gracilis (EWE) and EWE treated by boiling (bEWE) were evaluated using orthotopic lung cancer syngeneic mouse models with Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells. Daily oral administration of either EWE or bEWE started three weeks prior to the inoculation of LLC cells significantly attenuated tumor growth as compared to the phosphate buffered saline (PBS) control, and the attenuation was further enhanced by bEWE. The intestinal microbiota compositions in both extract-treated groups were more diverse than that in the PBS group. Particularly, a decrease in the ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes and significant increases in Akkermansia and Muribaculum were observed in two types of EWE-treated groups. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) using bEWE-treated mouse feces attenuated tumor growth to an extent equivalent to bEWE treatment, while tumor growth attenuation by bEWE was abolished by treatment with an antibiotic cocktail. These studies strongly suggest that daily oral administration of partially purified water extracts from Euglena gracilis attenuates lung carcinoma growth via the alteration of the intestinal microbiota.  more » « less
Award ID(s):
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ; ; ; ;
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Page Range / eLocation ID:
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Proteins involved in immune checkpoint pathways, such as CTLA4, PD1, and PD-L1, have become important targets for cancer immunotherapy; however, development of small molecule drugs targeting these pathways has proven difficult due to the nature of their protein–protein interfaces. Here, using a hierarchy of computational techniques, we design a cyclic peptide that binds CTLA4 and follow this with experimental verification of binding and biological activity, using bio-layer interferometry, cell culture, and a mouse tumor model. Beginning from a template excised from the X-ray structure of the CTLA4:B7-2 complex, we generate several peptide sequences using flexible docking and modeling steps. These peptides are cyclized head-to-tail to improve structural and proteolytic stability and screened using molecular dynamics simulation and MM-GBSA calculation. The standard binding free energies for shortlisted peptides are then calculated in explicit-solvent simulation using a rigorous multistep technique. The most promising peptide, cyc(EIDTVLTPTGWVAKRYS), yields the standard free energy −6.6 ± 3.5 kcal mol^−1, which corresponds to a dissociation constant of ∼15 μmol L^−1. The binding affinity of this peptide for CTLA4 is measured experimentally (31 ± 4 μmol L^−1) using bio-layer interferometry. Treatment with this peptide inhibited tumor growth in a co-culture of Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells and antigen primed T cells, as well as in mice with an orthotropic Lewis lung carcinoma allograft model. 
    more » « less
  2. Abstract

    Inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract are often associated with microbial dysbiosis. Thus, dietary interactions with intestinal microbiota, to maintain homeostasis, play a crucial role in regulation of clinical disorders such as colitis. In the current study, we investigated if resveratrol, a polyphenol found in a variety of foods and beverages, would reverse microbial dysbiosis induced during colitis. Administration of resveratrol attenuated colonic inflammation and clinical symptoms in the murine model of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis. Resveratrol treatment in mice with colitis led to an increase in CD4+FOXP3+ and CD4+IL-10+ T cells, and a decrease in CD4+IFN-γ+ and CD4+IL-17+ T cells. 16S rRNA gene sequencing to investigate alterations in the gut microbiota revealed that TNBS caused significant dysbiosis, which was reversed following resveratrol treatment. Analysis of cecal flush revealed that TNBS administration led to an increase in species such as Bacteroides acidifaciens, but decrease in species such as Ruminococcus gnavus and Akkermansia mucinphilia, as well as a decrease in SCFA i-butyric acid. However, resveratrol treatment restored the gut bacteria back to homeostatic levels, and increased production of i-butyric acid. Fecal transfer experiments confirmed the protective role of resveratrol-induced microbiota against colitis inasmuch as such recipient mice were more resistant to TNBS-colitis and exhibited polarization toward CD4+FOXP3+ T cells and decreases in CD4+IFN-γ+ and CD4+IL-17+ T cells. Collectively, these data demonstrate that resveratrol-mediated attenuation of colitis results from reversal of microbial dysbiosis induced during colitis and such microbiota protect the host from colonic inflammation by inducing Tregs while suppressing inflammatory Th1/Th17 cells.

    more » « less
  3. Administration of FVIII-Expressing Human Placental Cells to Juvenile Sheep Yields Multi-Organ Engraftment, Therapeutic Plasma FVIII Levels and Alter Immune Signaling Pathways to Evade FVIII Inhibitor Induction 63rd ASH Annual Meeting and Exposition, December 11-14, 2021, Georgia World Congress Center, Atlanta, GA Program: Oral and Poster Abstracts Session: 801. Gene Therapies: Poster III Hematology Disease Topics & Pathways: Bleeding and Clotting, Biological, Translational Research, Hemophilia, Genetic Disorders, Immune Mechanism, Diseases, Gene Therapy, Therapies, Adverse Events, Biological Processes, Transplantation Monday, December 13, 2021, 6:00 PM-8:00 PM We have previously reported that normal juvenile sheep that received weekly intravenous (IV) infusions of human (n=3) or an expression/secretion-optimized, bioengineered human/porcine hybrid (ET3) FVIII protein (n=3) for 5 weeks (20 IU/kg) developed anti-FVIII inhibitory antibodies (10-116 BU, and IgG titers of 1:20–1:245) by week 3 of infusion. By contrast, the IV infusion, or IP administration, of human placental mesenchymal cells (PLC) transduced with a lentiviral vector encoding a myeloid codon-optimized ET3 transgene (PLC-mcoET3) to produce high levels of ET3 protein (4.9-6IU/10^6 cells/24h) enabled the delivery of FVIII without eliciting antibodies, despite using PLC-mcoET3 doses that provided ~20-60 IU/kg ET3 each 24h to mirror the amount of FVIII protein infused. In addition, we showed that the route of PLC-mcoET3 administration (IP vs IV) did not impact the resultant plasma FVIII levels, with animals in these two groups exhibiting mean increases in FVIII activity (quantified by aPTT) of 30.9% and 34.2%, respectively, at week 15 post-treatment. Here, we investigated whether the sites and levels of PLC-mcoET3 engraftment were dependent upon the route of administration and performed s sheep-specific multiplexed transcriptomic analysis (NanoString) to define the immune signaling pathways that thwarted FVIII/ET3 protein immune response when ET3 was delivered through PLC. Tissue samples were collected from various organs at euthanasia and RT-qPCR performed using primers specific to the mcoET3 transgene, to the human housekeeping transcript GAPDH, and to sheep GAPDH, to quantify PLC-mcoET3 tissue engraftment, and normalize the results. RT-qPCR demonstrated PLC-mcoET3 engrafted, in both IP and IV groups, in all the organs evaluated (liver, lung, lymph nodes, thymus, and spleen). Animals that received PLC-mcoET3 via the IP route displayed higher overall levels of engraftment than their IV counterparts. The spleen was the preferential organ of engraftment for both IP and IV groups (IP:2.41±1.97%; IV: 0.64±0.54%). The IP group exhibited significantly higher engraftment in the left lobe of the liver (IP: 1.36±0.35%; IV: 0.041±0.022%), which was confirmed by immunohisto-chemistry (IHC) with an antibody to the human nuclear antigen Ku80 and ImageJ analysis (IP:5.24±3.36%; IV: 0±0). Of note is that the IP route resulted in higher levels of engraftment in the thymus, while IV infusion yielded higher levels of PLC-mcoET3 in lymph nodes. Analysis of H&E-stained tissues demonstrated they were devoid of any abnormal histologic changes and exhibited no evidence of hyperplasia or neoplasia, supporting the safety of the cell platform, irrespective of the route of administration. To date, NanoString analysis of PBMC collected at day 0, week 1, and week 5 post-infusion demonstrated that animals who received FVIII protein had upregulation of UBA5 and BATF, genes involved in antigen processing and Th17 signaling pathways, respectively. Although both IV and IP recipients of PLC-mcoET3 also had an increase in BATF, the IV group exhibited upregulation of BTLA, a gene involved in immune-tolerance, and downregulation of NOTCH and DDL1, involved in T cell differentiation, as well as MAPK12 and PLCG1, genes involved in proinflammatory cytokine regulation and T signaling within the Th17 signature. In IP recipients, BTLA, NOTCH, and DLL1 were all downregulated. Since ET3-reactive Th1 cells were not present in any of the treated animals, it is possible that the Th17 cells are responsible for the inhibitory antibodies seen in the juvenile sheep treated with FVIII/ET3 protein, while in animals receiving PLC-mcoET3, downregulation of genes involved in T cell differentiation and proinflammatory cytokine signaling keeps the immune system in check to avoid an immune response. Disclosures: Doering: Expression Therapeutics: Divested equity in a private or publicly-traded company in the past 24 months. Spencer: Expression Therapeutics: Divested equity in a private or publicly-traded company in the past 24 months. 
    more » « less
  4. Abstract

    There is increasing evidence of the relevant connection and regulation between the gut and skin immune axis. In fact, oral administration of lipoteichoic acid (LTA) fromLactobacillus rhamnosusGG (LGG) prevents the development of UV‐induced skin tumors in chronically exposed mice. Here we aim to evaluate whether this LTA is able to revert UV‐induced immunosuppression as a mechanism involved in its anti‐tumor effect and whether it has an immunotherapeutic effect against cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. Using a mouse model of contact hypersensitivity, we demonstrate that LTA overcomes UV‐induced skin immunosuppression. This effect was in part achieved by modulating the phenotype of lymph node resident dendritic cells (DC) and the homing of skin migratory DC. Importantly, oral LTA reduced significantly the growth of established skin tumors once UV radiation was discontinued, demonstrating that it has a therapeutic, besides the already demonstrated preventive antitumor effect. The data presented here strongly indicates that oral administration of LTA represents a promising immunotherapeutic approach for different conditions in which the skin immune system is compromised.

    more » « less
  5. ABSTRACT Background High intakes of fructose are associated with metabolic diseases, including hypertriglyceridemia and intestinal tumor growth. Although small intestinal epithelia consist of many different cell types, express lipogenic genes, and convert dietary fructose to fatty acids, there is no information on the identity of the cell type(s) mediating this conversion and on the effects of fructose on lipogenic gene expression. Objectives We hypothesized that fructose regulates the intestinal expression of genes involved in lipid and apolipoprotein synthesis, that regulation depends on the fructose transporter solute carrier family 2 member a5 [Slc2a5 (glucose transporter 5)] and on ketohexokinase (Khk), and that regulation occurs only in enterocytes. Methods We compared lipogenic gene expression among different organs from wild-type adult male C57BL mice consuming a standard vivarium nonpurified diet. We then gavaged twice daily for 2.5 d fructose or glucose solutions (15%, 0.3 mL per mouse) into wild-type, Slc2a5-knockout (KO), and Khk-KO mice with free access to the nonpurified diet and determined expression of representative lipogenic genes. Finally, from mice fed the nonpurified diet, we made organoids highly enriched in enterocyte, goblet, Paneth, or stem cells and then incubated them overnight in 10 mM fructose or glucose. Results Most lipogenic genes were significantly expressed in the intestine relative to the kidney, liver, lung, and skeletal muscle. In vivo expression of Srebf1, Acaca, Fasn, Scd1, Dgat1, Gk, Apoa4, and Apob mRNA and of Scd1 protein increased (P < 0.05) by 3- to 20-fold in wild-type, but not in Slc2a5-KO and Khk-KO, mice gavaged with fructose. In vitro, Slc2a5- and Khk-dependent, fructose-induced increases, which ranged from 1.5- to 4-fold (P < 0.05), in mRNA concentrations of all these genes were observed only in organoids enriched in enterocytes. Conclusions Fructose specifically stimulates expression of mouse small intestinal genes for lipid and apolipoprotein synthesis. Secretory and stem cells seem incapable of transport- and metabolism-dependent lipogenesis, occurring only in absorptive enterocytes. 
    more » « less