skip to main content

Title: Visible and near-infrared programmable multi-level diffractive lenses with phase change material Sb 2 S 3
In this paper, we discuss flat programmable multi-level diffractive lenses (PMDL) enabled by phase change materials working in the near-infrared and visible ranges. The high real part refractive index contrast (Δn ∼ 0.6) of Sb 2 S 3 between amorphous and crystalline states, and extremely low losses in the near-infrared, enable the PMDL to effectively shift the lens focus when the phase of the material is altered between its crystalline and amorphous states. In the visible band, although losses can become significant as the wavelength is reduced, the lenses can still provide good performance as a result of their relatively small thickness (∼ 1.5λ to 3λ). The PMDL consists of Sb 2 S 3 concentric rings with equal width and varying heights embedded in a glass substrate. The height of each concentric ring was optimized by a modified direct binary search algorithm. The proposed designs show the possibility of realizing programmable lenses at design wavelengths from the near-infrared (850 nm) up to the blue (450 nm) through engineering PMDLs with Sb 2 S 3 . Operation at these short wavelengths, to the best of our knowledge, has not been studied so far in reconfigurable lenses with phase-change materials. Therefore, our more » results open a wider range of applications for phase-change materials, and show the prospect of Sb 2 S 3 for such applications. The proposed lenses are polarization insensitive and can have the potential to be applied in dual-functionality devices, optical imaging, and biomedical science. « less
; ;
Award ID(s):
Publication Date:
Journal Name:
Optics Express
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Optical edge detection at the visible and near infrared (VNIR) wavelengths is deployed widely in many areas. Here we demonstrate numerically transmissive VNIR dual band edge imaging with a switchable metasurface. Tunability is enabled by using a low-loss and reversible phase-change material Sb2S3. The metasurface acts simultaneously as a high-pass spatial filter and a tunable spectral filter, giving the system the freedom to switch between two functions. In Function 1 with amorphous Sb2S3, this metasurface operates in the edge detection mode near 575 nm and blocks near infrared (NIR) transmission. In Function 2 with crystalline Sb2S3, the device images edges near 825 nm and blocks visible light images. The switchable Sb2S3metasurfaces allow low cross talk edge imaging of a target without complicated optomechanics.

  2. In this work, we explore inverse designed reconfigurable digital metamaterial structures based on phase change material Sb2Se3for efficient and compact integrated nanophotonics. An exemplary design of a 1 × 2 optical switch consisting of a 3 µm x 3 µm pixelated domain is demonstrated. We show that: (i) direct optimization of a domain containing only Si and Sb2Se3pixels does not lead to a high extinction ratio between output ports in the amorphous state, which is owed to the small index contrast between Si and Sb2Se3in such a state. As a result, (ii) topology optimization, e.g., the addition of air pixels, is required to provide an initial asymmetry that aids the amorphous state's response. Furthermore, (iii) the combination of low loss and high refractive index change in Sb2Se3, which is unique among all phase change materials in the telecommunications 1550 nm band, translates into an excellent projected performance; the optimized device structure exhibits a low insertion loss (∼1.5 dB) and high extinction ratio (>18 dB) for both phase states.

  3. The ever-growing data traffic requires greater transmission bandwidth and better energy efficiency in chip scale interconnects. The emerging transistor-laser-based electronic-photonic processing platform stands out for its high electrical-to-optical efficiency. Because transistor lasers operate best at 980 nm, efficient optical interconnects at this wavelength need to be developed for such energy-efficient computing platforms. Phase change materials (PCMs) are good candidates for achieving non-volatile, reconfigurable, zero-static power optical switching. Having bi-stable states under room temperature, a PCM has its permittivity significantly different between its crystalline and amorphous phases. The authors propose to develop a reconfigurable 1 x 2 optical switch by utilizing low loss GeTe PCM to pave the way for the transistor-laser platform at 980 nm. The non-volatility of the proposed device will open up opportunities for other interesting applications such as non-volatile optical memory and the optical equivalence of the field programmable gate array (FPGA).
  4. Phase change memory (PCM) is a high speed, high endurance, high density non-volatile memory technology that utilizes chalcogenide materials such as Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 (GST) that can be electrically cycled between highly resistive amorphous and low resistance crystalline phases. The resistance of the amorphous phase of PCM cells increase (drift) in time following a power law [1] , which increases the memory window in time but limits in the implementation of multi-bit-per-cell PCM. There has been a number of theories explaining the origin of drift [1] - [4] , mostly attributing it to structural relaxation, a thermally activated rearrangement of atoms in the amorphous structure [2] . Most of the studies on resistance drift are based on experiments at or above room temperature, where multiple processes may be occurring simultaneously. In this work, we melt-quenched amorphized GST line cells with widths ~120-140 nm, lengths ~390-500 nm, and thickness ~50nm ( Fig. 1 ) and monitored the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics using a parameter analyzer ( Fig. 2 ) in 85 K to 350 K range. We extracted the drift co-efficient from the slope of the resistance vs. time plots (using low-voltage measurements) and observed resistance drift in themore »125 K -300 K temperature range ( Fig. 3 ). We found an approximately linear increase in drift coefficient as a function of temperature from ~ 0.07 at 125 K to ~ 0.11 at 200 K and approximately constant drift coefficients in the 200 K to 300 K range ( Fig. 3 inset). These results suggest that structural relaxations alone cannot account for resistance drift, additional mechanisms are contributing to this phenomenon [5] , [6] .« less
  5. The proposed X-ray spatial light modulator (SLM) concept is based on the difference of X-ray scattering from amorphous and crystalline regions of phase change materials (PCMs) such as Ge2Sb2Te5(GST). In our X-ray SLM design, theon” andoff” states correspond to a patterned and homogeneous state of a GST thin film, respectively. The patterned state is obtained by exposing the homogeneous film to laser pulses. In this paper, we present patterning results in GST thin films characterized by microwave impedance microscopy and X-ray small-angle scattering at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource.