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Title: Whole-genome variation of transposable element insertions in a maize diversity panel
Abstract Intact transposable elements (TEs) account for 65% of the maize genome and can impact gene function and regulation. Although TEs comprise the majority of the maize genome and affect important phenotypes, genome-wide patterns of TE polymorphisms in maize have only been studied in a handful of maize genotypes, due to the challenging nature of assessing highly repetitive sequences. We implemented a method to use short-read sequencing data from 509 diverse inbred lines to classify the presence/absence of 445,418 nonredundant TEs that were previously annotated in four genome assemblies including B73, Mo17, PH207, and W22. Different orders of TEs (i.e., LTRs, Helitrons, and TIRs) had different frequency distributions within the population. LTRs with lower LTR similarity were generally more frequent in the population than LTRs with higher LTR similarity, though high-frequency insertions with very high LTR similarity were observed. LTR similarity and frequency estimates of nested elements and the outer elements in which they insert revealed that most nesting events occurred very near the timing of the outer element insertion. TEs within genes were at higher frequency than those that were outside of genes and this is particularly true for those not inserted into introns. Many TE insertional polymorphisms observed more » in this population were tagged by SNP markers. However, there were also 19.9% of the TE polymorphisms that were not well tagged by SNPs (R2 < 0.5) that potentially represent information that has not been well captured in previous SNP-based marker-trait association studies. This study provides a population scale genome-wide assessment of TE variation in maize and provides valuable insight on variation in TEs in maize and factors that contribute to this variation. « less
Authors:
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Editors:
Andrews, B J
Award ID(s):
1934384
Publication Date:
NSF-PAR ID:
10345885
Journal Name:
G3 Genes|Genomes|Genetics
Volume:
11
Issue:
10
ISSN:
2160-1836
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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  1. Bomblies, K (Ed.)
    Abstract Transposable elements (TEs) have the potential to create regulatory variation both through the disruption of existing DNA regulatory elements and through the creation of novel DNA regulatory elements. In a species with a large genome, such as maize, many TEs interspersed with genes create opportunities for significant allelic variation due to TE presence/absence polymorphisms among individuals. We used information on putative regulatory elements in combination with knowledge about TE polymorphisms in maize to identify TE insertions that interrupt existing accessible chromatin regions (ACRs) in B73 as well as examples of polymorphic TEs that contain ACRs among four inbred lines of maize including B73, Mo17, W22, and PH207. The TE insertions in three other assembled maize genomes (Mo17, W22, or PH207) that interrupt ACRs that are present in the B73 genome can trigger changes to the chromatin, suggesting the potential for both genetic and epigenetic influences of these insertions. Nearly 20% of the ACRs located over 2 kb from the nearest gene are located within an annotated TE. These are regions of unmethylated DNA that show evidence for functional importance similar to ACRs that are not present within TEs. Using a large panel of maize genotypes, we tested if theremore »is an association between the presence of TE insertions that interrupt, or carry, an ACR and the expression of nearby genes. While most TE polymorphisms are not associated with expression for nearby genes, the TEs that carry ACRs exhibit enrichment for being associated with higher expression of nearby genes, suggesting that these TEs may contribute novel regulatory elements. These analyses highlight the potential for a subset of TEs to rewire transcriptional responses in eukaryotic genomes.« less
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  4. Abstract

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