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Title: Nano-photoluminescence of natural anyon molecules and topological quantum computation
Abstract The proposal of fault-tolerant quantum computations, which promise to dramatically improve the operation of quantum computers and to accelerate the development of the compact hardware for them, is based on topological quantum field theories, which rely on the existence in Nature of physical systems described by a Lagrangian containing a non-Abelian (NA) topological term. These are solid-state systems having two-dimensional electrons, which are coupled to magnetic-flux-quanta vortexes, forming complex particles, known as anyons. Topological quantum computing (TQC) operations thus represent a physical realization of the mathematical operations involving NA representations of a braid group B n , generated by a set of n localized anyons, which can be braided and fused using a “tweezer” and controlled by a detector. For most of the potential TQC material systems known so far, which are 2D-electron–gas semiconductor structure at high magnetic field and a variety of hybrid superconductor/topological-material heterostructures, the realization of anyon localization versus tweezing and detecting meets serious obstacles, chief among which are the necessity of using current control, i.e., mobile particles, of the TQC operations and high density electron puddles (containing thousands of electrons) to generate a single vortex. Here we demonstrate a novel system, in which these obstacles more » can be overcome, and in which vortexes are generated by a single electron. This is a ~ 150 nm size many electron InP/GaInP 2 self-organized quantum dot, in which molecules, consisting of a few localized anyons, are naturally formed and exist at zero external magnetic field. We used high-spatial-resolution scanning magneto-photoluminescence spectroscopy measurements of a set of the dots having five and six electrons, together with many-body quantum mechanical calculations to demonstrate spontaneous formation of the anyon magneto-electron particles ( e ν ) having fractional charge ν  =  n / k, where n  = 1–4 and k  = 3–15 are the number of electrons and vortexes, respectively, arranged in molecular structures having a built-in (internal) magnetic field of 6–12 T. Using direct imaging of the molecular configurations we observed fusion and braiding of e ν - anyons under photo-excitation and revealed the possibility of using charge sensing for their control. Our investigations show that InP/GaInP 2 anyon-molecule QDs, which have intrinsic transformations of localized e ν - anyons compatible with TQC operations and capable of being probed by charge sensing, are very promising for the realization of TQC. « less
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Scientific Reports
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National Science Foundation
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Fig. 3(b) shows the tunneling probability T according to the Kane two-band model in the three materials, In0.53Ga0.47As, GaAs, and GaN, following our observation of a similar electroluminescence mechanism in GaN/AlN RTDs (due to strong polarization field of wurtzite structures) [8]. The expression is Tinter = (2/9)∙exp[(-2 ∙Ug 2 ∙me)/(2h∙P∙E)], where Ug is the bandgap energy, P is the valence-to-conduction-band momentum matrix element, and E is the electric field. Values for the highest calculated internal E fields for the InGaAs and GaN are also shown, indicating that Tinter in those structures approaches values of ~10-5. As shown, a GaAs RTD would require an internal field of ~6×105 V/cm, which is rarely realized in standard GaAs RTDs, perhaps explaining why there have been few if any reports of room-temperature electroluminescence in the GaAs devices. [1] E.R. Brown,et al., Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 58, 2291, 1991. [5] S. 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