skip to main content


Title: Back From the Dead: The Atypical Kinase Activity of a Pseudokinase Regulator of Cation Fluxes During Inducible Immunity
Pseudokinases are thought to lack phosphotransfer activity due to altered canonical catalytic residues within their kinase domain. However, a subset of pseudokinases maintain activity through atypical phosphotransfer mechanisms. The Arabidopsis ILK1 is a pseudokinase from the Raf-like MAP3K family and is the only known plant pseudokinase with confirmed protein kinase activity. ILK1 activity promotes disease resistance and molecular pattern-induced root growth inhibition through its stabilization of the HAK5 potassium transporter with the calmodulin-like protein CML9. ILK1 also has a kinase-independent function in salt stress suggesting that it interacts with additional proteins. We determined that members of the ILK subfamily are the sole pseudokinases within the Raf-like MAP3K family and identified 179 novel putative ILK1 protein interactors. We also identified 70 novel peptide targets for ILK1, the majority of which were phosphorylated in the presence of Mn 2+ instead of Mg 2+ in line with modifications in ILK1’s DFG cofactor binding domain. Overall, the ILK1-targeted or interacting proteins included diverse protein types including transporters (HAK5, STP1), protein kinases (MEKK1, MEKK3), and a cytokinin receptor (AHK2). The expression of 31 genes encoding putative ILK1-interacting or phosphorylated proteins, including AHK2, were altered in the root and shoot in response to molecular patterns suggesting a role for these genes in immunity. We describe a potential role for ILK1 interactors in the context of cation-dependent immune signaling, highlighting the importance of K + in MAMP responses. This work further supports the notion that ILK1 is an atypical kinase with an unusual cofactor dependence that may interact with multiple proteins in the cell.  more » « less
Award ID(s):
1714157
NSF-PAR ID:
10349376
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ; ;
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Frontiers in Plant Science
Volume:
13
ISSN:
1664-462X
Format(s):
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Stomatal pores close rapidly in response to low-air-humidity-induced leaf-to-air vapor pressure difference (VPD) increases, thereby reducing excessive water loss. The hydroactive signal-transduction mechanisms mediating high VPD–induced stomatal closure remain largely unknown. The kinetics of stomatal high-VPD responses were investigated by using time-resolved gas-exchange analyses of higher-order mutants in guard-cell signal-transduction branches. We show that the slow-type anion channel SLAC1 plays a relatively more substantial role than the rapid-type anion channel ALMT12/QUAC1 in stomatal VPD signaling. VPD-induced stomatal closure is not affected in mpk12 / mpk4GC double mutants that completely disrupt stomatal CO 2 signaling, indicating that VPD signaling is independent of the early CO 2 signal-transduction pathway. Calcium imaging shows that osmotic stress causes cytoplasmic Ca 2+ transients in guard cells. Nevertheless, osca1-2 / 1.3 / 2.2 / 2.3 / 3.1 Ca 2+ -permeable channel quintuple, osca1.3 / 1.7 -channel double, cngc5 / 6 -channel double, cngc20 -channel single, cngc19 / 20crispr -channel double, glr3.2 / 3.3 -channel double, cpk- kinase quintuple, cbl1 / 4 / 5 / 8 / 9 quintuple, and cbl2 / 3rf double mutants showed wild-type-like stomatal VPD responses. A B3-family Raf-like mitogen-activated protein (MAP)-kinase kinase kinase, M3Kδ5/RAF6, activates the OST1/SnRK2.6 kinase in plant cells. Interestingly, B3 Raf-kinase m3kδ5 and m3kδ1 / δ5 / δ6 / δ7 ( raf3 / 6 / 5 / 4 ) quadruple mutants, but not a 14-gene raf-kinase mutant including osmotic stress-linked B4-family Raf-kinases, exhibited slowed high-VPD responses, suggesting that B3-family Raf-kinases play an important role in stomatal VPD signaling. Moreover, high VPD–induced stomatal closure was impaired in receptor-like pseudokinase GUARD CELL HYDROGEN PEROXIDE-RESISTANT1 (GHR1) mutant alleles. Notably, the classical transient “wrong-way” VPD response was absent in ghr1 mutant alleles. These findings reveal genes and signaling mechanisms in the elusive high VPD–induced stomatal closing response pathway. 
    more » « less
  2. Abstract Motivation

    The development of proteomic methods for the characterization of domain/motif interactions has greatly expanded our understanding of signal transduction. However, proteomics-based binding screens have limitations including that the queried tissue or cell type may not harbor all potential interacting partners or post-translational modifications (PTMs) required for the interaction. Therefore, we sought a generalizable, complementary in silico approach to identify potentially novel motif and PTM-dependent binding partners of high priority.

    Results

    We used as an initial example the interaction between the Src homology 2 (SH2) domains of the adaptor proteins CT10 regulator of kinase (CRK) and CRK-like (CRKL) and phosphorylated-YXXP motifs. Employing well-curated, publicly-available resources, we scored and prioritized potential CRK/CRKL–SH2 interactors possessing signature characteristics of known interacting partners. Our approach gave high priority scores to 102 of the >9000 YXXP motif-containing proteins. Within this 102 were 21 of the 25 curated CRK/CRKL–SH2-binding partners showing a more than 80-fold enrichment. Several predicted interactors were validated biochemically. To demonstrate generalized applicability, we used our workflow to predict protein–protein interactions dependent upon motif-specific arginine methylation. Our data demonstrate the applicability of our approach to, conceivably, any modular binding domain that recognizes a specific post-translationally modified motif.

    Supplementary information

    Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

     
    more » « less
  3. Apicomplexan parasites like Toxoplasma gondii grow and replicate within a specialized organelle called the parasitophorous vacuole. The vacuole is decorated with parasite proteins that integrate into the membrane after trafficking through the parasite secretory system as soluble, chaperoned complexes. A regulator of this process is an atypical protein kinase called WNG1. Phosphorylation by WNG1 appears to serve as a switch for membrane integration. However, like its substrates, WNG1 is secreted from the parasite dense granules, and its activity must, therefore, be tightly regulated until the correct membrane is encountered. Here, we demonstrate that, while another member of the WNG family can adopt multiple multimeric states, WNG1 is monomeric and therefore not regulated by multimerization. Instead, we identify two phosphosites on WNG1 that are required for its kinase activity. Using a combination of in vitro biochemistry and structural modeling, we identify basic residues that are also required for WNG1 activity and appear to recognize the activating phosphosites. Among these coordinating residues are the ‘HRD’ Arg, which recognizes activation loop phosphorylation in canonical kinases. WNG1, however, is not phosphorylated on its activation loop, but rather on atypical phosphosites on its C-lobe. We propose a simple model in which WNG1 is activated by increasing ATP concentration above a critical threshold once the kinase traffics to the parasitophorous vacuole. 
    more » « less
  4. Plant stomata sense CO2 via reversible interaction of the Raf-like HT1 protein kinase with non-activity requiring MAP kinase. 
    more » « less
  5. null (Ed.)
    Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common cause of viral bronchiolitis and pneumonia in infants and children worldwide. Inflammation induced by RSV infection is responsible for its hallmark manifestation of bronchiolitis and pneumonia. The cellular debris created through lytic cell death of infected cells is a potent initiator of this inflammation. Macrophages are known to play a pivotal role in the early innate immune and inflammatory response to viral pathogens. However, the lytic cell death mechanisms associated with RSV infection in macrophages remains unknown. Two distinct mechanisms involved in lytic cell death are pyroptosis and necroptosis. Our studies revealed that RSV induces lytic cell death in macrophages via both of these mechanisms, specifically through the ASC (Apoptosis-associated speck like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain)-NLRP3 (nucleotide-binding domain, leucine-rich-containing family, pyrin domain-containing-3) inflammasome activation of both caspase-1 dependent pyroptosis and receptor-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase 3 (RIPK3), as well as a mixed lineage kinase domain like pseudokinase (MLKL)-dependent necroptosis. In addition, we demonstrated an important role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during lytic cell death of RSV-infected macrophages. 
    more » « less