skip to main content

Title: Iodine chemistry in the chemistry–climate model SOCOL-AERv2-I
Abstract. In this paper, we present a new version of the chemistry–climate model SOCOL-AERv2 supplemented by an iodine chemistry module. We perform three 20-year ensemble experiments to assess the validity of the modeled iodine and to quantify the effects of iodine on ozone. The iodine distributions obtained with SOCOL-AERv2-I agree well with AMAX-DOAS observations and with CAM-chem model simulations. For the present-day atmosphere, the model suggests that the iodine-induced chemistry leads to a 3 %–4 % reduction in the ozone column, which is greatest at high latitudes. The model indicates the strongest influence of iodine in the lower stratosphere with 30 ppbv less ozone at low latitudes and up to 100 ppbv less at high latitudes. In the troposphere, the account of the iodine chemistry reduces the tropospheric ozone concentration by 5 %–10 % depending on geographical location. In the lower troposphere, 75 % of the modeled ozone reduction originates from inorganic sources of iodine, 25 % from organic sources of iodine. At 50 hPa, the results show that the impacts of iodine from both sources are comparable. Finally, we determine the sensitivity of ozone to iodine by applying a 2-fold increase in iodine emissions, as it might be representative for iodine by the end of this century. This more » reduces the ozone column globally by an additional 1.5 %–2.5 %. Our results demonstrate the sensitivity of atmospheric ozone to iodine chemistry for present and future conditions, but uncertainties remain high due to the paucity of observational data of iodine species. « less
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Award ID(s):
Publication Date:
Journal Name:
Geoscientific Model Development
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
6623 to 6645
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Abstract. We present an updated mechanism for tropospheric halogen (Cl + Br + I) chemistry in the GEOS-Chem global atmospheric chemical transportmodel and apply it to investigate halogen radical cycling and implications for tropospheric oxidants. Improved representation of HOBr heterogeneouschemistry and its pH dependence in our simulation leads to less efficient recycling and mobilization of bromine radicals and enables the model toinclude mechanistic sea salt aerosol debromination without generating excessive BrO. The resulting global mean tropospheric BrO mixingratio is 0.19 ppt (parts per trillion), lower than previous versions of GEOS-Chem. Model BrO shows variable consistency and biases in comparison tosurface and aircraft observations in marine air, which are often near or below the detection limit. The model underestimates the daytimemeasurements of Cl2 and BrCl from the ATom aircraft campaign over the Pacific and Atlantic, which if correct would imply a very largemissing primary source of chlorine radicals. Model IO is highest in the marine boundary layer and uniform in the free troposphere, with a globalmean tropospheric mixing ratio of 0.08 ppt, and shows consistency with surface and aircraft observations. The modeled global meantropospheric concentration of Cl atoms is 630 cm−3, contributing 0.8 % of the global oxidation of methane, 14 % of ethane,8 % of propane, and 7 % of highermore »alkanes. Halogen chemistry decreases the global tropospheric burden of ozone by 11 %,NOx by 6 %, and OH by 4 %. Most of the ozone decrease is driven by iodine-catalyzed loss. The resulting GEOS-Chem ozonesimulation is unbiased in the Southern Hemisphere but too low in the Northern Hemisphere.« less
  2. We present a simulation of the global present-day composition of the troposphere which includes the chemistry of halogens (Cl, Br, I). Building on previous work within the GEOS-Chem model we include emissions of inorganic iodine from the oceans, anthropogenic and biogenic sources of halogenated gases, gas phase chemistry, and a parameterised approach to heterogeneous halogen chemistry. Consistent with Schmidt et al. (2016) we do not include sea-salt debromination. Observations of halogen radicals (BrO, IO) are sparse but the model has some skill in reproducing these. Modelled IO shows both high and low biases when compared to different datasets, but BrO concentrations appear to be modelled low. Comparisons to the very sparse observations dataset of reactive Cl species suggest the model represents a lower limit of the impacts of these species, likely due to underestimates in emissions and therefore burdens. Inclusion of Cl, Br, and I results in a general improvement in simulation of ozone (O3) concentrations, except in polar regions where the model now underestimates O3 concentrations. Halogen chemistry reduces the global tropospheric O3 burden by 18.6 %, with the O3 lifetime reducing from 26 to 22 days. Global mean OH concentrations of 1.28  ×  106 molecules cm−3 are 8.2 % lower than in a simulationmore »without halogens, leading to an increase in the CH4 lifetime (10.8 %) due to OH oxidation from 7.47 to 8.28 years. Oxidation of CH4 by Cl is small (∼  2 %) but Cl oxidation of other VOCs (ethane, acetone, and propane) can be significant (∼  15–27 %). Oxidation of VOCs by Br is smaller, representing 3.9 % of the loss of acetaldehyde and 0.9 % of the loss of formaldehyde.« less
  3. Abstract. We use the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model to examine theinfluence of bromine release from blowing-snow sea salt aerosol (SSA) onspringtime bromine activation and O3 depletion events (ODEs) in theArctic lower troposphere. We evaluate our simulation against observations oftropospheric BrO vertical column densities (VCDtropo) from the GOME-2 (second Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment)and Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) spaceborne instruments for 3 years (2007–2009), as well asagainst surface observations of O3. We conduct a simulation withblowing-snow SSA emissions from first-year sea ice (FYI; with a surface snowsalinity of 0.1 psu) and multi-year sea ice (MYI; with a surface snowsalinity of 0.05 psu), assuming a factor of 5 bromide enrichment of surfacesnow relative to seawater. This simulation captures the magnitude ofobserved March–April GOME-2 and OMI VCDtropo to within 17 %, as wellas their spatiotemporal variability (r=0.76–0.85). Many of the large-scalebromine explosions are successfully reproduced, with the exception of eventsin May, which are absent or systematically underpredicted in the model. Ifwe assume a lower salinity on MYI (0.01 psu), some of the bromine explosionsevents observed over MYI are not captured, suggesting that blowing snow overMYI is an important source of bromine activation. We find that the modeledatmospheric deposition onto snow-covered sea ice becomes highly enriched inbromide, increasing from enrichmentmore »factors of ∼5 inSeptember–February to 10–60 in May, consistent with composition observations of freshly fallen snow. We propose that this progressive enrichment indeposition could enable blowing-snow-induced halogen activation to propagateinto May and might explain our late-spring underestimate in VCDtropo.We estimate that the atmospheric deposition of SSA could increase snow salinityby up to 0.04 psu between February and April, which could be an importantsource of salinity for surface snow on MYI as well as FYI covered by deepsnowpack. Inclusion of halogen release from blowing-snow SSA in oursimulations decreases monthly mean Arctic surface O3 by 4–8 ppbv(15 %–30 %) in March and 8–14 ppbv (30 %–40 %) in April. We reproduce atransport event of depleted O3 Arctic air down to 40∘ Nobserved at many sub-Arctic surface sites in early April 2007. While oursimulation captures 25 %–40 % of the ODEs observed at coastal Arctic surfacesites, it underestimates the magnitude of many of these events and entirelymisses 60 %–75 % of ODEs. This difficulty in reproducing observed surfaceODEs could be related to the coarse horizontal resolution of the model, theknown biases in simulating Arctic boundary layer exchange processes, thelack of detailed chlorine chemistry, and/or the fact that we did not includedirect halogen activation by snowpack chemistry.« less
  4. Abstract. Dry deposition is a major sink of tropospheric ozone.Increasing evidence has shown that ozone dry deposition actively linksmeteorology and hydrology with ozone air quality. However, there is littlesystematic investigation on the performance of different ozone drydeposition parameterizations at the global scale and how parameterizationchoice can impact surface ozone simulations. Here, we present the results ofthe first global, multidecadal modelling and evaluation of ozone drydeposition velocity (vd) using multiple ozone dry depositionparameterizations. We model ozone dry deposition velocities over 1982–2011using four ozone dry deposition parameterizations that are representative ofcurrent approaches in global ozone dry deposition modelling. We useconsistent assimilated meteorology, land cover, and satellite-derived leafarea index (LAI) across all four, such that the differences in simulatedvd are entirely due to differences in deposition model structures orassumptions about how land types are treated in each. In addition, we usethe surface ozone sensitivity to vd predicted by a chemical transportmodel to estimate the impact of mean and variability of ozone dry depositionvelocity on surface ozone. Our estimated vd values from four differentparameterizations are evaluated against field observations, and whileperformance varies considerably by land cover types, our results suggestthat none of the parameterizations are universally better than the others.Discrepancy in simulated mean vdmore »among the parameterizations isestimated to cause 2 to 5 ppbv of discrepancy in surface ozone in theNorthern Hemisphere (NH) and up to 8 ppbv in tropical rainforests in July,and up to 8 ppbv in tropical rainforests and seasonally dry tropical forestsin Indochina in December. Parameterization-specific biases based onindividual land cover type and hydroclimate are found to be the two maindrivers of such discrepancies. We find statistically significant trends inthe multiannual time series of simulated July daytime vd in allparameterizations, driven by warming and drying (southern Amazonia, southernAfrican savannah, and Mongolia) or greening (high latitudes). The trend inJuly daytime vd is estimated to be 1 % yr−1 and leadsto up to 3 ppbv of surface ozone changes over 1982–2011. The interannual coefficient ofvariation (CV) of July daytime mean vd in NH is found to be5 %–15 %, with spatial distribution that varies with the dry depositionparameterization. Our sensitivity simulations suggest this can contributebetween 0.5 to 2 ppbv to interannual variability (IAV) in surface ozone, butall models tend to underestimate interannual CV when compared to long-termozone flux observations. We also find that IAV in some dry depositionparameterizations is more sensitive to LAI, while in others it is more sensitiveto climate. Comparisons with other published estimates of the IAV ofbackground ozone confirm that ozone dry deposition can be an important partof natural surface ozone variability. Our results demonstrate the importanceof ozone dry deposition parameterization choice on surface ozone modellingand the impact of IAV of vd on surface ozone, thus making a strong casefor further measurement, evaluation, and model–data integration of ozone drydeposition on different spatiotemporal scales.« less
  5. Abstract

    Observational records of meteorological and chemical variables are imprinted by an unknown combination of anthropogenic activity, natural forcings, and internal variability. With a 15-member initial-condition ensemble generated from the CESM2-WACCM6 chemistry-climate model for 1950–2014, we extract signals of anthropogenic (‘forced’) change from the noise of internally arising climate variability on observed tropospheric ozone trends. Positive trends in free tropospheric ozone measured at long-term surface observatories, by commercial aircraft, and retrieved from satellite instruments generally fall within the ensemble range. CESM2-WACCM6 tropospheric ozone trends are also bracketed by those in a larger ensemble constructed from five additional chemistry-climate models. Comparison of the multi-model ensemble with observed tropospheric column ozone trends in the northern tropics implies an underestimate in regional precursor emission growth over recent decades. Positive tropospheric ozone trends clearly emerge from 1950 to 2014, exceeding 0.2 DU yr−1at 20–40 N in all CESM2-WACCM6 ensemble members. Tropospheric ozone observations are often only available for recent decades, and we show that even a two-decade record length is insufficient to eliminate the role of internal variability, which can produce regional tropospheric ozone trends oppositely signed from ensemble mean (forced) changes. By identifying regions and seasons with strong anthropogenic change signals relative tomore »internal variability, initial-condition ensembles can guide future observing systems seeking to detect anthropogenic change. For example, analysis of the CESM2-WACCM6 ensemble reveals year-round upper tropospheric ozone increases from 1995 to 2014, largest at 30 S–40 N during boreal summer. Lower tropospheric ozone increases most strongly in the winter hemisphere, and internal variability leads to trends of opposite sign (ensemble overlaps zero) north of 40 N during boreal summer. This decoupling of ozone trends in the upper and lower troposphere suggests a growing prominence for tropospheric ozone as a greenhouse gas despite regional efforts to abate warm season ground-level ozone.

    « less