skip to main content

Title: Supranutritional Maternal Organic Selenium Supplementation during Different Trimesters of Pregnancy Affects the Muscle Gene Transcriptome of Newborn Beef Calves in a Time-Dependent Manner
Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient for growth and immune function in beef cattle. We previously showed that supranutritional maternal organic Se supplementation during late pregnancy improves immune function in their newborn calves; however, the effects of maternal organic Se-supplementation on fetal programming during different pregnancy stages have yet to be elucidated. Herein, we investigated the effects of supranutritional maternal organic Se-supplementation in different pregnancy trimesters on their beef calf’s genome-wide transcriptome profiles. Within 12 to 48 h of birth, whole blood and Longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle biopsies were collected from calves born to 40 crossbred Angus cows that received, except for the control group (CTR), Se-yeast boluses (105 mg of Se/wk) during the first (TR1), second (TR2), or third (TR3) trimester of gestation. Whole-blood Se concentrations of newborn calves increased from CTR, TR1, TR2 to TR3, whereas muscle Se concentrations of newborn calves were only increased in TR3 group. We identified 3048 unique differentially expressed genes (DEGs) across all group comparisons (FDR ≤ 0.05 and |log2FC| ≥ 1.5). Furthermore, we predicted 237 unique transcription factors that putatively regulate the DEGs. Independent of supplementation trimester, supranutritional maternal organic Se supplementation downregulated genes involved in adaptive immunity in all trimesters. Dependent more » on supplementation trimester, genes involved in muscle development were upregulated by TR3 Se supplementation and downregulated by TR1 Se-supplementation, and genes involved in collagen formation were downregulated by TR2 Se-supplementation. Supranutritional maternal organic Se supplementation in the last trimester of pregnancy resulted in upregulation of myosin and actin filament associated genes, potentially allowing for optimal muscle function and contraction. Our findings suggest a beneficial effect of supranutritional maternal organic Se supplementation during late gestation on Se-status and muscle development and function of newborn calves. « less
; ; ; ; ; ;
Award ID(s):
Publication Date:
Journal Name:
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Abstract We examined the effects of dietary supplementation of a blend of mannan and glucan on the growth performance, energy status, and whole-blood immune gene expression of newly weaned beef steers during a 42-d receiving period. Forty-eight newly weaned Angus crossbred steers (2-d post-weaning; 199 ± 13 kg of initial body weight [BW]) from a single source were stratified by BW and randomly assigned to one of the two treatments: basal diet with no additive (CON; n = 24) or a basal diet top-dressed with 5 g of a blend of mannan and glucan (MANGLU; n = 24). Average daily gain (ADG) and feed efficiency (FE) from days 1 to 14, 15 to 42, and 1 to 42 were calculated from daily dry matter intake (DMI) and weekly BW. Blood samples were collected on days 0, 14, and 42 for measurement of plasma glucose and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA). Blood samples collected on days 14 and 42 were composited for each steer for untargeted carbonyl-metabolome analysis (measurement of carbonyl-containing metabolites). Expression of 84 immune-related genes was analyzed on blood samples collected on day 42. Beginning on days 37 to 42, total mixed ration, refusals, and fecal samples were collected oncemore »daily to determine apparent total tract digestibility of DM, CP, NDF, and ADF using indigestible NDF as an internal marker. Over the 42-d feeding trial, supplemental MANGLU tended to increase final BW (P = 0.07) and ADG (P = 0.06). Compared to CON, beef steers fed supplemental MANGLU had greater (P = 0.01) DMI during the first 14 d, greater DM digestibility (P = 0.03), and tended to have greater NDF digestibility (P = 0.09). No treatment effects (P > 0.10) on plasma glucose and NEFA on days 14 and 42 were detected; however, carbonyl-metabolome analysis revealed increased (FDR ≤ 0.05) plasma concentrations of galactose and glyceraldehydes, and altered (FDR ≤ 0.05) concentrations of some microbiome-derived metabolites in beef steers fed MANGLU. Compared with CON, MANGLU increased (P ≤ 0.05) the expression of five immune-related genes involved in recognition of and mounting immune defense against microbial pathogens. In conclusion, the results of this study demonstrated that supplemental MANGLU enhances beef cattle immunocompetence and productivity during feedlot receiving period.« less
  2. ABSTRACT Background

    Inflammation during pregnancy may aggravate iron deficiency (ID) by increasing serum hepcidin and reducing iron absorption. This could restrict iron transfer to the fetus, increasing risk of infant ID and its adverse effects.


    We aimed to assess whether iron bioavailability and/or iron transfer to the fetus is impaired in overweight/obese (OW) pregnant women with adiposity-related inflammation, compared with normal-weight (NW) pregnant women.


    In this prospective study, we followed NW (n = 43) and OW (n = 40) pregnant women who were receiving iron supplements from the 14th week of gestation to term and followed their infants to age 6 mo. We administered 57Fe and 58Fe in test meals mid-second and mid-third trimester, and measured tracer kinetics throughout pregnancy and infancy.


    In total, 38 NW and 36 OW women completed the study to pregnancy week 36, whereas 30 NW and 27 OW mother–infant pairs completed the study to 6 mo postpartum. Both groups had comparable iron status, hemoglobin, and serum hepcidin throughout pregnancy. Compared with the NW, the OW pregnant women had 1) 43% lower fractional iron absorption (FIA) in the third trimester (P = 0.033) with median [IQR] FIA of 23.9% [11.4%–35.7%] and 13.5% [10.8%–19.5%], respectively; and 2) 17% lower maternal–fetal iron transfermore »from the first tracer (P = 0.051) with median [IQR] maternal–fetal iron transfer of 4.8% [4.2%–5.4%] and 4.0% [3.6%–4.6%], respectively. Compared with the infants born to NW women, infants born to OW women had lower body iron stores (BIS) with median [IQR] 7.7 [6.3–8.8] and 6.6 [4.6–9.2] mg/kg body weight at age 6 mo, respectively (P = 0.024). Prepregnancy BMI was a negative predictor of maternal–fetal iron transfer (β = −0.339, SE = 0.144, P = 0.025) and infant BIS (β = −0.237, SE = 0.026, P = 0.001).


    Compared with NW, OW pregnant women failed to upregulate iron absorption in late pregnancy, transferred less iron to their fetus, and their infants had lower BIS. These impairments were associated with inflammation independently of serum hepcidin.

    This trial was registered at as NCT02747316.

    « less
  3. Marine mammals such as northern elephant seals (NES) routinely experience hypoxemia and ischemia-reperfusion events to many tissues during deep dives with no apparent adverse effects. Adaptations to diving include increased antioxidants and elevated oxygen storage capacity associated with high hemoprotein content in blood and muscle. The natural turnover of heme by heme oxygenase enzymes (encoded by HMOX1 and HMOX2 ) produces endogenous carbon monoxide (CO), which is present at high levels in NES blood and has been shown to have cytoprotective effects in laboratory systems exposed to hypoxia. To understand how pathways associated with endogenous CO production and signaling change across ontogeny in diving mammals, we measured muscle CO and baseline expression of 17 CO-related genes in skeletal muscle and whole blood of three age classes of NES. Muscle CO levels approached those of animals exposed to high exogenous CO, increased with age, and were significantly correlated with gene expression levels. Muscle expression of genes associated with CO production and antioxidant defenses ( HMOX1 , BVR , GPX3 , PRDX1 ) increased with age and was highest in adult females, while that of genes associated with protection from lipid peroxidation ( GPX4 , PRDX6 , PRDX1 , SIRT1 ) wasmore »highest in adult males. In contrast, muscle expression of mitochondrial biogenesis regulators ( PGC1A , ESRRA , ESRRG ) was highest in pups, while genes associated with inflammation ( HMOX2 , NRF2 , IL1B ) did not vary with age or sex. Blood expression of genes involved in regulation of inflammation ( IL1B , NRF2 , BVR , IL10 ) was highest in pups, while HMOX1 , HMOX2 and pro-inflammatory markers ( TLR4 , CCL4 , PRDX1 , TNFA ) did not vary with age. We propose that ontogenetic upregulation of baseline HMOX1 expression in skeletal muscle of NES may, in part, underlie increases in CO levels and expression of genes encoding antioxidant enzymes. HMOX2 , in turn, may play a role in regulating inflammation related to ischemia and reperfusion in muscle and circulating immune cells. Our data suggest putative ontogenetic mechanisms that may enable phocid pups to transition to a deep-diving lifestyle, including high baseline expression of genes associated with mitochondrial biogenesis and immune system activation during postnatal development and increased expression of genes associated with protection from lipid peroxidation in adulthood.« less
  4. The health benefits of switching from tobacco to electronic cigarettes (ECs) are neither confirmed nor well characterized. To address this problem, we used RNA-seq analysis to compare the nasal epithelium transcriptome from the following groups (n = 3 for each group): (1) former smokers who completely switched to second generation ECs for at least 6 months, (2) current tobacco cigarette smokers (CS), and (3) non-smokers (NS). Group three included one former cigarette smoker. The nasal epithelial biopsies from the EC users vs. NS had a higher number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) than biopsies from the CS vs. NS and CS vs. EC sets (1817 DEGs total for the EC vs. NS, 407 DEGs for the CS vs. NS, and 116 DEGs for the CS vs. EC comparison). In the EC vs. NS comparison, enriched gene ontology terms for the downregulated DEGs included cilium assembly and organization, whereas gene ontologies for upregulated DEGs included immune response, keratinization, and NADPH oxidase. Similarly, ontologies for cilium movement were enriched in the downregulated DEGs for the CS vs. NS group. Reactome pathway analysis gave similar results and also identified keratinization and cornified envelope in the upregulated DEGs in the EC vs. NS comparison.more »In the CS vs. NS comparison, the enriched Reactome pathways for upregulated DEGs included biological oxidations and several metabolic processes. Regulator effects identified for the EC vs. NS comparison were inflammatory response, cell movement of phagocytes and degranulation of phagocytes. Disease Ontology Sematic Enrichment analysis identified lung disease, mouth disease, periodontal disease and pulmonary fibrosis in the EC vs. NS comparison. Squamous metaplasia associated markers, keratin 10, keratin 13 and involucrin, were increased in the EC vs. NS comparison. Our transcriptomic analysis showed that gene expression profiles associated with EC use are not equivalent to those from non-smokers. EC use may interfere with airway epithelium recovery by promoting increased oxidative stress, inhibition of ciliogenesis, and maintaining an inflammatory response. These transcriptomic alterations may contribute to the progression of diseases with chronic EC use.« less
  5. Previous studies have evaluated the metabolic status of animals fed direct-fed microbial (DFM) using enzyme-based assays which are time-consuming and limited to a few metabolites. In addition, little emphasis has been placed on investigating the effects of DFM on hindgut microbiota. We examined the effects of dietary supplementation of a blend of Saccharomyces cerevisiae-based DFM and fermentation products on the plasma concentrations of carbonyl-containing metabolites via a metabolomics approach, and fecal bacterial community, via 16S rRNA gene sequencing, of beef steers during a 42-day receiving period. Forty newly weaned steers were randomly assigned to receive a basal diet with no additive (CON; n = 20) or a basal diet supplemented with 19 g of Commence™ (PROB; n = 20) for a 42-day period. Commence™ (PMI, Arden Hills, MN) is a blend of 6.2 × 1011 cfu/g of S. cerevisiae, 3.5 × 1010 cfu/g of a mixture of Enterococcus lactis, Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecium, and Lactobacillus casei, and the fermentation products of these aforementioned microorganisms and those of Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus niger. On d 0 and 40, rectal fecal samples were collected randomly from 10 steers from each treatment group. On d 42, blood was collected for plasma preparation.