skip to main content


Title: Ruthenium Electrodeposition from Water-in-Salt Electrolytes and the Influence of Tetrabutylammonium

The use of water-in-salt electrolytes is evaluated for the electrodeposition of metallic ruthenium. The mechanisms of proton reduction inhibition by concentrated LiCl and dilute tetrabutylammonium is evaluated. Concentrated LiCl is found to disrupt the hydrogen bonding network within the solution bulk, whereas TBA is found to adsorb onto the electrode surface, blocking proton access. Ruthenium exists as a different complexed species in water-in-salt electrolytes vs dilute aqueous electrolytes, leading to a −300 mV shift in the deposition onset potential. Greater current efficiencies of Ru deposition can be obtained when depositing at proton overpotentials by the use of water-in-salt electrolytes, and TBA can offer further improvements. The grain structure and resistivities of Ru thin films are studied.

 
more » « less
Award ID(s):
1662332
NSF-PAR ID:
10360244
Author(s) / Creator(s):
;
Publisher / Repository:
The Electrochemical Society
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Journal of The Electrochemical Society
Volume:
167
Issue:
6
ISSN:
0013-4651
Page Range / eLocation ID:
Article No. 062509
Format(s):
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. The electrodeposition of Ru was investigated from solutions of ruthenium(III) nitrosyl sulfate and ruthenium(III) chloride onto seed layers of epitaxial and polycrystalline Ru and epitaxial Au. Using both galvanostatic and potentiostatic deposition modes, metallic Ru was found to electrodeposit as a porous layer comprised of (0001) oriented Ru crystallites, the presence of which was discovered and confirmed by X-ray and scanning transmission and transmission electron microscope (S/TEM) analyses. This finding was independent of the Ru salt and seed layer used. Using X-ray reflectivity (XRR), the average film densityρeffof the porous electrodeposited Ru layer was measured as less than the density of bulk RuρRu,bulk(14.414 g cm−3). Increasing the magnitude of the applied current density from −100μA cm−2to −10 mA cm−2in solutions of Ru nitrosyl sulfate increased theρefffrom 7.4 g cm−3to 9.7 g cm−2while the current efficiency decreased from 9.4% to 4.3%.

     
    more » « less
  2. NA (Ed.)
    Using ultrafast polarization-selective pump-probe spectroscopy (PSPP) of the OD stretch of dilute HOD, we demonstrate that the limited water-water H-bonding present in concentrated lithium chloride solutions (up to 4 waters per ion pair) is, on average, stronger than that occurring in bulk water. Furthermore, information on the orientational dynamics and the angular restriction of water H-bonded to both water oxygens and chloride anions were obtained through analysis of the frequency-dependent anisotropy decays. It was found that the water showed increasing restriction and slowing at frequencies correlated with strong H-bonding when the salt concentration was increased. The angular restriction of the water molecules and strengthening of water-water H-bonds are due to the formation of a water-ion network not present in bulk water and dilute salt solutions. Finally, the structural evolution of the ionic medium was observed through spectral diffusion of the OD stretch using 2D IR spectroscopy. Compared to pure water, there is significant slowing of the biexponential spectral diffusion dynamics. The slowest component of the spectral diffusion, 13 ps, is virtually identical to the time for complete orientation randomization of HOD measured with the PSPP experiments. This result suggests that the slowest component of the spectral diffusion reflects rearrangement of water molecules in the water-ion network. Using ultrafast polarization-selective pump-probe spectroscopy (PSPP) of the OD stretch of dilute HOD, we demonstrate that the limited water-water H-bonding present in concentrated lithium chloride solutions (up to 4 waters per ion pair) is, on average, stronger than that occurring in bulk water. Furthermore, information on the orientational dynamics and the angular restriction of water H-bonded to both water oxygens and chloride anions were obtained through analysis of the frequency-dependent anisotropy decays. It was found that the water showed increasing restriction and slowing at frequencies correlated with strong H-bonding when the salt concentration was increased. The angular restriction of the water molecules and strengthening of water-water H-bonds are due to the formation of a water-ion network not present in bulk water and dilute salt solutions. Finally, the structural evolution of the ionic medium was observed through spectral diffusion of the OD stretch using 2D IR spectroscopy. Compared to pure water, there is significant slowing of the biexponential spectral diffusion dynamics. The slowest component of the spectral diffusion, 13 ps, is virtually identical to the time for complete orientation randomization of HOD measured with the PSPP experiments. This result suggests that the slowest component of the spectral diffusion reflects rearrangement of water molecules in the water-ion network. 
    more » « less
  3. Carreira, Erick M. (Ed.)
    In highly concentrated salt solutions, the water hydrogen bond (H-bond) network is completely disrupted by the presence of ions. Water is forced to restructure as dictated by the water-ion and ion-ion interactions. Using ultrafast polarization-selective pump-probe spectroscopy (PSPP) of the OD stretch of dilute HOD, we demonstrate that the limited water-water H-bonding present in concentrated lithium chloride solutions (up to 4 waters per ion pair) is, on average, stronger than that occurring in bulk water. Furthermore, information on the orientational dynamics and the angular restriction of water H-bonded to both water oxygens and chloride anions were obtained through analysis of the frequency-dependent anisotropy decays. It was found that the water showed increasing restriction and slowing at frequencies correlated with strong H-bonding when the salt concentration was increased. The angular restriction of the water molecules and strengthening of water-water H-bonds are due to the formation of a water-ion network not present in bulk water and dilute salt solutions. Finally, the structural evolution of the ionic medium was observed through spectral diffusion of the OD stretch using 2D IR spectroscopy. Compared to pure water, there is significant slowing of the biexponential spectral diffusion dynamics. The slowest component of the spectral diffusion, 13 ps, is virtually identical to the time for complete orientation randomization of HOD measured with the PSPP experiments. This result suggests that the slowest component of the spectral diffusion reflects rearrangement of water molecules in the water-ion network. 
    more » « less
  4. Proteins make up much of the machinery of cells and perform many roles that are essential for life. Some important proteins – known as intrinsically disordered proteins – lack any stable three-dimensional structure. One such protein, called tau, is best known for its ability to form tangles in the brain, and a buildup of these tangles is a hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease and many other dementias. Tau is also one of a number of proteins that can undergo a process called liquid-liquid phase separation: essentially, a solution of tau separates into a very dilute solution interspersed with droplets of a concentrated tau solution, similar to an oil-water mixture separating into a very watery solution with drops of oil. Understanding the conditions that lead to spontaneous liquid-liquid phase separation might give insight into how the tau tangles form. However, it was not known whether it is possible in principle for liquid-liquid phase separation of tau to occur in a living brain. Lin, McCarty et al. have now used an advanced computer simulation method together with experiments to map the conditions under which a solution containing tau undergoes liquid-liquid phase separation. Temperature as well as the concentrations of salt and the tau protein all influenced how easily tau droplets formed or dissolved, and the narrow range of conditions that encouraged droplet formation fell within the normal conditions found in the body, also known as “physiological conditions”. This suggested that tau droplets might form and dissolve easily in living systems, and possibly in the brain, depending on the precise physiological conditions. To explore this possibility further, tau protein was added to a dish containing living cells. As the map suggested, slightly adjusting temperature or protein concentrations caused tau droplets to form and dissolve, all while the cells remained alive. The map provided by this study may offer guides to researchers looking for liquid-liquid phase separation in the brain. If liquid-liquid phase separation of tau occurs in living brains, it may be important for determining whether and when damaging tau tangles emerge. For example, the high concentration of tau in droplets might speed up tangle formation. Ultimately, a better understanding of the conditions and mechanism for liquid-liquid phase separation of tau can help researchers understand the role of protein droplet formation in living systems. This may be a process that promotes, or possibly a regulatory mechanism that prevents, the formation of tau tangles associated with dementia. 
    more » « less
  5. Abstract

    Achieving facile nucleation of noble metal films through atomic layer deposition (ALD) is extremely challenging. To this end, η4‐2,3‐dimethylbutadiene ruthenium(0)tricarbonyl (Ru(DMBD)(CO)3), a zero‐valent complex, has recently been reported to achieve good nucleation by ALD at relatively low temperatures and mild reaction conditions. The authors study the growth mechanism of this precursor by in situ quartz‐crystal microbalance and quadrupole mass spectrometry during Ru ALD, complemented by ex situ film characterization and kinetic modeling. These studies reveal that Ru(DMBD)(CO)3produces high‐quality Ru films with excellent nucleation properties. This results in smooth, coalesced films even at low film thicknesses, all important traits for device applications. However, Ru deposition follows a kinetically limited decarbonylation reaction scheme, akin to typical chemical vapor deposition processes, with a strong dependence on both temperature and reaction timescale. The non‐self‐limiting nature of the kinetically driven mechanism presents both challenges for ALD implementation and opportunities for process tuning. By surveying reports of similar precursors, it is suggested that the findings can be generalized to the broader class of zero‐oxidation state carbonyl‐based precursors used in thermal ALD, with insight into the design of effective saturation studies.

     
    more » « less