skip to main content

Attention:

The NSF Public Access Repository (NSF-PAR) system and access will be unavailable from 11:00 PM ET on Thursday, May 23 until 2:00 AM ET on Friday, May 24 due to maintenance. We apologize for the inconvenience.


Title: Translational gene regulation in plants: A green new deal
Abstract

The molecular machinery for protein synthesis is profoundly similar between plants and other eukaryotes. Mechanisms of translational gene regulation are embedded into the broader network of RNA‐level processes including RNA quality control and RNA turnover. However, over eons of their separate history, plants acquired new components, dropped others, and generally evolved an alternate way of making the parts list of protein synthesis work. Research over the past 5 years has unveiled how plants utilize translational control to defend themselves against viruses, regulate translation in response to metabolites, and reversibly adjust translation to a wide variety of environmental parameters. Moreover, during seed and pollen development plants make use of RNA granules and other translational controls to underpin developmental transitions between quiescent and metabolically active stages. The economics of resource allocation over the daily light–dark cycle also include controls over cellular protein synthesis. Important new insights into translational control on cytosolic ribosomes continue to emerge from studies of translational control mechanisms in viruses. Finally, sketches of coherent signaling pathways that connect external stimuli with a translational response are emerging, anchored in part around TOR and GCN2 kinase signaling networks. These again reveal some mechanisms that are familiar and others that are different from other eukaryotes, motivating deeper studies on translational control in plants.

This article is categorized under:

Translation > Translation Regulation

RNA Structure and Dynamics > Influence of RNA Structure in Biological Systems

RNA Interactions with Proteins and Other Molecules > Protein‐RNA Interactions: Functional Implications

 
more » « less
NSF-PAR ID:
10360336
Author(s) / Creator(s):
 ;  ;  
Publisher / Repository:
Wiley Blackwell (John Wiley & Sons)
Date Published:
Journal Name:
WIREs RNA
Volume:
11
Issue:
6
ISSN:
1757-7004
Format(s):
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Abstract

    PARP1 (poly‐ADP‐ribose polymerase 1) is a multidomain protein with a flexible and self‐folding structure that allows it to interact with a wide range of biomolecules, including nucleic acids and target proteins. PARP1 interacts with its target molecules either covalently via PARylation or non‐covalently through its PAR moieties induced by auto‐PARylation. These diverse interactions allow PARP1 to participate in complex regulatory circuits and cellular functions. Although the most studied PARP1‐mediated functions are associated with DNA repair and cellular stress response, subsequent discoveries have revealed additional biological functions. Based on these findings, PARP1 is now recognized as a major modulator of gene expression. Several discoveries show that this multifunctional protein has been intimately connected to several steps of mRNA biogenesis, from transcription initiation to mRNA splicing, polyadenylation, export, and translation of mRNA to proteins. Nevertheless, our understanding of PARP1's involvement in the biogenesis of both coding and noncoding RNA, notably circular RNA (circRNA), remains restricted. In this review, we outline the possible roles of PARP1 in circRNA biogenesis. A full examination of the regulatory roles of PARP1 in nuclear processes with an emphasis on circRNA may reveal new avenues to control dysregulation implicated in the pathogenesis of several diseases such as neurodegenerative disorders and cancers.

    This article is categorized under:

    RNA Interactions with Proteins and Other Molecules > Protein‐RNA Interactions: Functional Implications

    Regulatory RNAs/RNAi/Riboswitches > Regulatory RNAs

    RNA Processing > Splicing Regulation/Alternative Splicing

     
    more » « less
  2. Summary

    Style length is a major determinant of breeding strategies in flowering plants and can vary dramatically between and within species. However, little is known about the genetic and developmental control of style elongation.

    We characterized the role of two classes of leaf adaxial–abaxial polarity factors, SUPPRESSOR OF GENE SILENCING3 (SGS3) and the YABBY family transcription factors, in the regulation of style elongation inMimulus lewisii. We also examined the spatiotemporal patterns of auxin response during style development.

    Loss ofSGS3function led to reduced style length via limiting cell division, and downregulation ofYABBYgenes by RNA interference resulted in shorter styles by decreasing both cell division and cell elongation. We discovered an auxin response minimum between the stigma and ovary during the early stages of pistil development that marks style differentiation. Subsequent redistribution of auxin response to this region was correlated with style elongation. Auxin response was substantially altered when bothSGS3andYABBYfunctions were disrupted.

    We suggest that auxin signaling plays a central role in style elongation and that the way in which auxin signaling controls the different cell division and elongation patterns underpinning natural style length variation is a major question for future research.

     
    more » « less
  3. Plants have been recognized as key components of bioregenerative life support systems for space exploration, and many experiments have been carried out to evaluate their adaptability to spaceflight. Unfortunately, few of these experiments have involved monocot plants, which constitute most of the crops used on Earth as sources of food, feed, and fiber. To better understand the ability of monocot plants to adapt to spaceflight, we germinated and grew Brachypodium distachyon seedlings of the Bd21, Bd21-3, and Gaz8 accessions in a customized growth unit on the International Space Station, along with 1-g ground controls. At the end of a 4-day growth period, seedling organ’s growth and morphologies were quantified, and root and shoot transcriptomic profiles were investigated using RNA-seq. The roots of all three accessions grew more slowly and displayed longer root hairs under microgravity conditions relative to ground control. On the other hand, the shoots of Bd21-3 and Gaz-8 grew at similar rates between conditions, whereas those of Bd21 grew more slowly under microgravity. The three Brachypodium accessions displayed dramatically different transcriptomic responses to microgravity relative to ground controls, with the largest numbers of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) found in Gaz8 (4527), followed by Bd21 (1353) and Bd21-3 (570). Only 47 and six DEGs were shared between accessions for shoots and roots, respectively, including DEGs encoding wall-associated proteins and photosynthesis-related DEGs. Furthermore, DEGs associated with the “Oxidative Stress Response” GO group were up-regulated in the shoots and down-regulated in the roots of Bd21 and Gaz8, indicating that Brachypodium roots and shoots deploy distinct biological strategies to adapt to the microgravity environment. A comparative analysis of the Brachypodium oxidative-stress response DEGs with the Arabidopsis ROS wheel suggests a connection between retrograde signaling, light response, and decreased expression of photosynthesis-related genes in microgravity-exposed shoots. In Gaz8, DEGs were also found to preferentially associate with the “Plant Hormonal Signaling” and “MAP Kinase Signaling” KEGG pathways. Overall, these data indicate that Brachypodium distachyon seedlings exposed to the microgravity environment of ISS display accession- and organ-specific responses that involve oxidative stress response, wall remodeling, photosynthesis inhibition, expression regulation, ribosome biogenesis, and post-translational modifications. The general characteristics of these responses are similar to those displayed by microgravity-exposed Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings. However, organ- and accession-specific components of the response dramatically differ both within and between species. These results suggest a need to directly evaluate candidate-crop responses to microgravity to better understand their specific adaptability to this novel environment and develop cultivation strategies allowing them to strive during spaceflight. 
    more » « less
  4. Abstract

    As the most widely used herbal medicine in human history and a major defence hormone in plants against a broad spectrum of pathogens and abiotic stresses, salicylic acid (SA) has attracted major research interest. With applications of modern technologies over the past 30 years, studies of the effects of SA on plant growth, development, and defence have revealed many new research frontiers and continue to deliver surprises. In this review, we provide an update on recent advances in our understanding of SA metabolism, perception, and signal transduction mechanisms in plant immunity. An overarching theme emerges that SA executes its many functions through intricate regulation at multiple steps: SA biosynthesis is regulated both locally and systemically, while its perception occurs through multiple cellular targets, including metabolic enzymes, redox regulators, transcription cofactors, and, most recently, an RNA-binding protein. Moreover, SA orchestrates a complex series of post-translational modifications of downstream signaling components and promotes the formation of biomolecular condensates that function as cellular signalling hubs. SA also impacts wider cellular functions through crosstalk with other plant hormones. Looking into the future, we propose new areas for exploration of SA functions, which will undoubtedly uncover more surprises for many years to come.

     
    more » « less
  5. Abstract

    Invasive species have the ability to rapidly adapt in the new regions where they are introduced. Classic evolutionary theory predicts that the accumulation of genetic differences over time in allopatric isolation may lead to reproductive incompatibilities resulting in decreases in reproductive success and, eventually, to speciation. However, experimental evidence for this theoretical prediction in the context of invasive species is lacking. We aimed to test for the potential of allopatry to determine reproductive success of invasive plants, by experimentally admixing genotypes from six different native and non‐native regions ofCentaurea solstitialis, an invasive forb for which preliminary studies have detected some degree of reproductive isolation between one native and non‐native region.

    We grew plants under common garden conditions and outcrossed individuals originating from different source populations in the native and introduced range to evaluate reproductive success in terms of seed to ovule ratio produced. We also assessed geographical and genetic isolation amongC.solstitialisregions as a potential driving factor of reproductive success.

    Experimental admixture generated mixed fitness effects, including significant increases, decreases and no differences in reproductive success as compared to crosses within population (control).Centaurea solstitialisinvasive populations in the Americas generated preponderantly negative fitness interactions, regardless of the pollen source, suggesting selection against immigrants and reinforcement. Other non‐native populations (Australia) as well as individuals from the native range of Spain demonstrated an increase in fitness for between‐region crosses, indicating inbreeding. These differences show an asymmetrical response to inter‐regional gene flow, but no evidence of isolation by distance.

    Synthesis. The speed of adaptation and the accumulation of reproductive incompatibilities among allopatric populations of invasive species might be more rapid than previously assumed. Our data show a global mosaic of reproductive outputs, showcasing an array of evolutionary processes unfolding during colonization at large biogeographical scales.

     
    more » « less