skip to main content

Title: Ultra-diffuse galaxies in the perseus cluster: comparing galaxy properties with globular cluster system richness

It is clear that within the class of ultra-diffuse galaxies (UDGs), there is an extreme range in the richness of their associated globular cluster (GC) systems. Here, we report the structural properties of five UDGs in the Perseus cluster based on deep Subaru/Hyper Suprime-Cam imaging. Three appear GC-poor and two appear GC-rich. One of our sample, PUDG_R24, appears to be undergoing quenching and is expected to fade into the UDG regime within the next ∼0.5 Gyr. We target this sample with Keck Cosmic Web Imager (KCWI) spectroscopy to investigate differences in their dark matter haloes, as expected from their differing GC content. Our spectroscopy measures both recessional velocities, confirming Perseus cluster membership, and stellar velocity dispersions, to measure dynamical masses within their half-light radius. We supplement our data with that from the literature to examine trends in galaxy parameters with GC system richness. We do not find the correlation between GC numbers and UDG phase space positioning expected if GC-rich UDGs environmentally quench at high redshift. We do find GC-rich UDGs to have higher velocity dispersions than GC-poor UDGs on average, resulting in greater dynamical mass within the half-light radius. This agrees with the first order expectation that GC-rich UDGs have higher halo masses than GC-poor UDGs.

more » « less
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Publisher / Repository:
Oxford University Press
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Page Range / eLocation ID:
p. 946-958
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Abstract We present Keck/DEIMOS spectroscopy of the first complete sample of ultradiffuse galaxies (UDGs) in the Virgo cluster. We select all UDGs in Virgo that contain at least 10 globular cluster (GC) candidates and are more than 2.5 σ outliers in scaling relations of size, surface brightness, and luminosity (a total of 10 UDGs). We use the radial velocity of their GC satellites to measure the velocity dispersion of each UDG. We find a mixed bag of galaxies, from one UDG that shows no signs of dark matter, to UDGs that follow the luminosity–dispersion relation of early-type galaxies, to the most extreme examples of heavily dark matter–dominated galaxies that break well-known scaling relations such as the luminosity–dispersion or U-shaped total mass-to-light ratio relations. This is indicative of a number of mechanisms at play forming these peculiar galaxies. Some of them may be the most extended version of dwarf galaxies, while others are so extreme that they seem to populate dark matter halos consistent with that of the Milky Way or even larger. Even though Milky Way stars and other GC interlopers contaminating our sample of GCs cannot be fully ruled out, our assessment of this potential problem and simulations indicate that the probability is low and, if present, unlikely to be enough to explain the extreme dispersions measured. Further confirmation from stellar kinematics studies in these UDGs would be desirable. The lack of such extreme objects in any of the state-of-the-art simulations opens an exciting avenue of new physics shaping these galaxies. 
    more » « less
  2. null (Ed.)
    ABSTRACT We present a detailed 3D kinematic analysis of the central regions (R < 30 arcsec) of the low mass and dynamically evolved galactic globular cluster (GC) NGC 6362. The study is based on data obtained with ESO-VLT/MUSE used in combination with the adaptive optics module and providing ∼3000 line-of-sight radial velocities, which have been complemented with Hubble Space Telescope proper motions. The quality of the data and the number of available radial velocities allowed us to detect for the first time a significant rotation signal along the line of sight in the cluster core with amplitude of ∼1 km s−1 and with a peak located at only ∼20 arcsec from the cluster centre, corresponding to only ${\sim}10{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$ of the cluster half-light radius. This result is further supported by the detection of a central and significant tangential anisotropy in the cluster innermost regions. This is one of the most central rotation signals ever observed in a GC to date. We also explore the rotational properties of the multiple populations hosted by this cluster and find that Na-rich stars rotate about two times more rapidly than the Na-poor sub-population thus suggesting that the interpretation of the present-day GC properties require a multicomponent chemo-dynamical approach. Both the rotation amplitude and peak position would fit qualitatively the theoretical expectations for a system that lost a significant fraction of its original mass because of the long-term dynamical evolution and interaction with the Galaxy. However, to match the observations more quantitatively further theoretical studies to explore the initial dynamical properties of the cluster are needed. 
    more » « less

    We study the present-day rotational velocity (Vrot) and velocity dispersion (σ) profiles of the globular cluster (GC) systems in a sample of 50 lenticular (S0) galaxies from the E-MOSAICS galaxy formation simulations. We find that $82{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$ of the galaxies have GCs that are rotating along the photometric major axis of the galaxy (aligned), while the remaining $18{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$ of the galaxies do not (misaligned). This is generally consistent with the observations from the SLUGGS survey. For the aligned galaxies, classified as peaked and outwardly decreasing ($49{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$), flat ($24{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$), and increasing ($27{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$) based on the Vrot/σ profiles out to large radii, we do not find any clear correlation between these present-day Vrot/σ profiles of the GCs and the past merger histories of the S0 galaxies, unlike in previous simulations of galaxy stars. For just over half of the misaligned galaxies, we find that the GC misalignment is the result of a major merger within the last $10\, \mathrm{Gyr}$ so that the ex-situ GCs are misaligned by an angle between 0° (co-rotation) and 180° (counter-rotation), with respect to the in situ GCs, depending on the orbital configuration of the merging galaxies. For the remaining misaligned galaxies, we suggest that the in situ metal-poor GCs, formed at early times, have undergone more frequent kinematic perturbations than the in situ metal-rich GCs. We also find that the GCs accreted early and the in situ GCs are predominantly located within 0.2 virial radii (R200) from the centre of galaxies in 3D phase-space diagrams.

    more » « less
  4. Abstract We present new redshift measurements for 19 candidate ultra-diffuse galaxies (UDGs) from the Systematically Measuring Ultra-Diffuse Galaxies (SMUDGes) survey after conducting a long-slit spectroscopic follow-up campaign on 23 candidates with the Large Binocular Telescope. We combine these results with redshift measurements from other sources for 29 SMUDGes and 20 non-SMUDGes candidate UDGs. Together, this sample yields 44 spectroscopically confirmed UDGs ( r e ≥ 1.5 kpc and μ g (0) ≥ 24 mag arcsec −2 within uncertainties) and spans cluster and field environments, with all but one projected on the Coma cluster and environs. We find no statistically significant differences in the structural parameters of cluster and noncluster confirmed UDGs, although there are hints of differences among the axis ratio distributions. Similarly, we find no significant structural differences among those in locally dense or sparse environments. However, we observe a significant difference in color with respect to projected clustercentric radius, confirming trends observed previously in statistical UDG samples. This trend strengthens further when considering whether UDGs reside in either cluster or locally dense environments, suggesting starkly different star formation histories for UDGs residing in high- and low-density environments. Of the 16 large ( r e ≥ 3.5 kpc) UDGs in our sample, only one is a field galaxy that falls near the early-type galaxy red sequence. No other field UDGs found in low-density environments fall near the red sequence. This finding, in combination with our detection of Galaxy Evolution Explorer NUV flux in nearly half of the UDGs in sparse environments, suggests that field UDGs are a population of slowly evolving galaxies. 
    more » « less

    Galaxy cluster masses, rich with cosmological information, can be estimated from internal dark matter (DM) velocity dispersions, which in turn can be observationally inferred from satellite galaxy velocities. However, galaxies are biased tracers of the DM, and the bias can vary over host halo and galaxy properties as well as time. We precisely calibrate the velocity bias, bv – defined as the ratio of galaxy and DM velocity dispersions – as a function of redshift, host halo mass, and galaxy stellar mass threshold ($M_{\rm \star , sat}$), for massive haloes ($M_{\rm 200c}\gt 10^{13.5} \, {\rm M}_\odot$) from five cosmological simulations: IllustrisTNG, Magneticum, Bahamas + Macsis, The Three Hundred Project, and MultiDark Planck-2. We first compare scaling relations for galaxy and DM velocity dispersion across simulations; the former is estimated using a new ensemble velocity likelihood method that is unbiased for low galaxy counts per halo, while the latter uses a local linear regression. The simulations show consistent trends of bv increasing with M200c and decreasing with redshift and $M_{\rm \star , sat}$. The ensemble-estimated theoretical uncertainty in bv is 2–3 per cent, but becomes percent-level when considering only the three highest resolution simulations. We update the mass–richness normalization for an SDSS redMaPPer cluster sample, and find our improved bv estimates reduce the normalization uncertainty from 22 to 8 per cent, demonstrating that dynamical mass estimation is competitive with weak lensing mass estimation. We discuss necessary steps for further improving this precision. Our estimates for $b_v(M_{\rm 200c}, M_{\rm \star , sat}, z)$ are made publicly available.

    more » « less