skip to main content


Title: Nonlinear localized modes in two-dimensional hexagonally-packed magnetic lattices
Abstract

We conduct an extensive study of nonlinear localized modes (NLMs), which are temporally periodic and spatially localized structures, in a two-dimensional array of repelling magnets. In our experiments, we arrange a lattice in a hexagonal configuration with a light-mass defect, and we harmonically drive the center of the chain with a tunable excitation frequency, amplitude, and angle. We use a damped, driven variant of a vector Fermi–Pasta–Ulam–Tsingou lattice to model our experimental setup. Despite the idealized nature of this model, we obtain good qualitative agreement between theory and experiments for a variety of dynamical behaviors. We find that the spatial decay is direction-dependent and that drive amplitudes along fundamental displacement axes lead to nonlinear resonant peaks in frequency continuations that are similar to those that occur in one-dimensional damped, driven lattices. However, we observe numerically that driving along other directions results in asymmetric NLMs that bifurcate from the main solution branch, which consists of symmetric NLMs. We also demonstrate both experimentally and numerically that solutions that appear to be time-quasiperiodic bifurcate from the branch of symmetric time-periodic NLMs.

 
more » « less
Award ID(s):
1741565 1809074
NSF-PAR ID:
10361896
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Publisher / Repository:
IOP Publishing
Date Published:
Journal Name:
New Journal of Physics
Volume:
23
Issue:
4
ISSN:
1367-2630
Page Range / eLocation ID:
Article No. 043008
Format(s):
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Abstract

    We investigate the spectral properties of one-dimensional spatially modulated nonlinear phononic lattices, and their evolution as a function of amplitude. In the linear regime, the stiffness modulations define a family of periodic and quasiperiodic lattices whose bandgaps host topological edge states localized at the boundaries of finite domains. With cubic nonlinearities, we show that edge states whose eigenvalue branch remains within the gap as amplitude increases remain localized, and therefore appear to be robust with respect to amplitude. In contrast, edge states whose corresponding branch approaches the bulk bands experience de-localization transitions. These transitions are predicted through continuation studies on the linear eigenmodes as a function of amplitude, and are confirmed by direct time domain simulations on finite lattices. Through our predictions, we also observe a series of amplitude-induced localization transitions as the bulk modes detach from the nonlinear bulk bands and become discrete breathers that are localized in one or more regions of the domain. Remarkably, the predicted transitions are independent of the size of the finite lattice, and exist for both periodic and quasiperiodic lattices. These results highlight the co-existence of topological edge states and discrete breathers in nonlinear modulated lattices. Their interplay may be exploited for amplitude-induced eigenstate transitions, for the assessment of the robustness of localized states, and as a strategy to induce discrete breathers through amplitude tuning.

     
    more » « less
  2. Abstract

    Recent work in nonlinear topological metamaterials has revealed many useful properties such as amplitude dependent localized vibration modes and nonreciprocal wave propagation. However, thus far, there have not been any studies to include the use of local resonators in these systems. This work seeks to fill that gap through investigating a nonlinear quasi-periodic metamaterial with periodic local resonator attachments. We model a one-dimensional metamaterial lattice as a spring-mass chain with coupled local resonators. Quasi-periodic modulation in the nonlinear connecting springs is utilized to achieve topological features. For comparison, a similar system without local resonators is also modeled. Both analytical and numerical methods are used to study this system. The dispersion relation of the infinite chain of the proposed system is determined analytically through the perturbation method of multiple scales. This analytical solution is compared to the finite chain response, estimated using the method of harmonic balance and solved numerically. The resulting band structures and mode shapes are used to study the effects of quasi-periodic parameters and excitation amplitude on the system behavior both with and without the presence of local resonators. Specifically, the impact of local resonators on topological features such as edge modes is established, demonstrating the appearance of a trivial bandgap and multiple localized edge states for both main cells and local resonators. These results highlight the interplay between local resonance and nonlinearity in a topological metamaterial demonstrating for the first time the presence of an amplitude invariant bandgap alongside amplitude dependent topological bandgaps.

     
    more » « less
  3. We provide the first experimental realization of wavenumber bandgap (𝑞−gap) breathers. Experiments are obtained in the setting of a time-periodic phononic lattice where the model and experiment exhibit good qualitative agreement. 𝑞−gap breathers are localized in time and periodic in space, and are the counterparts to the classical breathers found in space-periodic systems. We derive an exact condition for modulation instability that leads to the opening of wavenumber bandgaps in which the 𝑞−gap breathers can arise. The 𝑞−gap breathers become more narrow and larger in amplitude as the wavenumber goes further into the bandgap. In the presence of damping, these structures acquire a nonzero, oscillating tail. The controllable temporal localization that 𝑞−gap breathers make possible has potential applications in the creation of phononic frequency combs, energy harvesting or acoustic signal processing. 
    more » « less
  4. Abstract

    We report the clean experimental realization of cubic–quintic complex Ginzburg–Landau (CQCGL) physics in a single driven, damped system. Four numerically predicted categories of complex dynamical behavior and pattern formation are identified for bright and dark solitary waves propagating around an active magnetic thin film-based feedback ring: (1) periodic breathing; (2) complex recurrence; (3) spontaneous spatial shifting; and (4) intermittency. These nontransient, long lifetime behaviors are observed in self-generated spin wave envelopes circulating within a dispersive, nonlinear yttrium iron garnet waveguide. The waveguide is operated in a ring geometry in which the net losses are directly compensated for via linear amplification on each round trip (of the order of 100 ns). These behaviors exhibit periods ranging from tens to thousands of round trip times (of the order ofμs) and are stable for 1000s of periods (of the order of ms). We present ten observations of these dynamical behaviors which span the experimentally accessible ranges of attractive cubic nonlinearity, dispersion, and external field strength that support the self-generation of backward volume spin waves in a four-wave-mixing dominant regime. Three-wave splitting is not explicitly forbidden and is treated as an additional source of nonlinear losses. All observed behaviors are robust over wide parameter regimes, making them promising for technological applications. We present ten experimental observations which span all categories of dynamical behavior previously theoretically predicted to be observable. This represents a complete experimental verification of the CQCGL equation as a model for the study of fundamental, complex nonlinear dynamics for driven, damped waves evolving in nonlinear, dispersive systems. The reported dynamical pattern formation of self-generated dark solitary waves in attractive nonlinearity without external sources or potentials, however, is entirely novel and is presented for both the periodic breather and complex recurrence behaviors.

     
    more » « less
  5. Periodic networks on the verge of mechanical instability, called Maxwell lattices, are known to exhibit zero-frequency modes localized to their boundaries. Topologically polarized Maxwell lattices, in particular, focus these zero modes to one of their boundaries in a manner that is protected against disorder by the reciprocal-space topology of the lattice’s band structure. Here, we introduce a class of mechanical bilayers as a model system for designing topologically protected edge modes that couple in-plane dilational and shearing modes to out-of-plane flexural modes, a paradigm that we refer to as “omnimodal polarization.” While these structures exhibit a high-dimensional design space that makes it difficult to predict the topological polarization of generic geometries, we are able to identify a family of mirror-symmetric bilayers that inherit the in-plane modal localization of their constitutive monolayers, whose topological polarization can be determined analytically. Importantly, the coupling between the layers results in the emergence of omnimodal polarization, whereby in-plane and out-of-plane edge modes localize on the same edge. We demonstrate these theoretical results by fabricating a mirror-symmetric, topologically polarized kagome bilayer consisting of a network of elastic beams via additive manufacturing and confirm this finite-frequency polarization via finite element analysis and laser-vibrometry experiments.

     
    more » « less