Sequencing, assembly, and annotation of the 26.5 Gbp hexaploid genome of coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) was completed leading toward discovery of genes related to climate adaptation and investigation of the origin of the hexaploid genome. Deep-coverage short-read Illumina sequencing data from haploid tissue from a single seed were combined with long-read Oxford Nanopore Technologies sequencing data from diploid needle tissue to create an initial assembly, which was then scaffolded using proximity ligation data to produce a highly contiguous final assembly, SESE 2.1, with a scaffold N50 size of 44.9 Mbp. The assembly included several scaffolds that span entire chromosome arms, confirmed by the presence of telomere and centromere sequences on the ends of the scaffolds. The structural annotation produced 118,906 genes with 113 containing introns that exceed 500 Kbp in length and one reaching 2 Mb. Nearly 19 Gbp of the genome represented repetitive content with the vast majority characterized as long terminal repeats, with a 2.9:1 ratio of Copia to Gypsy elements that may aid in gene expression control. Comparison of coast redwood to other conifers revealed species-specific expansions for a plethora of abiotic and biotic stress response genes, including those involved in fungal disease resistance, detoxification, and physical injury/structural remodeling and others more »
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- G3 Genes|Genomes|Genetics
- Oxford University Press
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- National Science Foundation
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Abstract The giant sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum) of California are massive, long-lived trees that grow along the U.S. Sierra Nevada mountains. Genomic data are limited in giant sequoia and producing a reference genome sequence has been an important goal to allow marker development for restoration and management. Using deep-coverage Illumina and Oxford Nanopore sequencing, combined with Dovetail chromosome conformation capture libraries, the genome was assembled into eleven chromosome-scale scaffolds containing 8.125 Gbp of sequence. Iso-Seq transcripts, assembled from three distinct tissues, was used as evidence to annotate a total of 41,632 protein-coding genes. The genome was found to contain, distributed unevenly across all 11 chromosomes and in 63 orthogroups, over 900 complete or partial predicted NLR genes, of which 375 are supported by annotation derived from protein evidence and gene modeling. This giant sequoia reference genome sequence represents the first genome sequenced in the Cupressaceae family, and lays a foundation for using genomic tools to aid in giant sequoia conservation and management.
HapSolo: an optimization approach for removing secondary haplotigs during diploid genome assembly and scaffoldingAbstract Background Despite marked recent improvements in long-read sequencing technology, the assembly of diploid genomes remains a difficult task. A major obstacle is distinguishing between alternative contigs that represent highly heterozygous regions. If primary and secondary contigs are not properly identified, the primary assembly will overrepresent both the size and complexity of the genome, which complicates downstream analysis such as scaffolding. Results Here we illustrate a new method, which we call HapSolo, that identifies secondary contigs and defines a primary assembly based on multiple pairwise contig alignment metrics. HapSolo evaluates candidate primary assemblies using BUSCO scores and then distinguishes among candidate assemblies using a cost function. The cost function can be defined by the user but by default considers the number of missing, duplicated and single BUSCO genes within the assembly. HapSolo performs hill climbing to minimize cost over thousands of candidate assemblies. We illustrate the performance of HapSolo on genome data from three species: the Chardonnay grape ( Vitis vinifera ), with a genome of 490 Mb, a mosquito ( Anopheles funestus ; 200 Mb) and the Thorny Skate ( Amblyraja radiata ; 2650 Mb). Conclusions HapSolo rapidly identified candidate assemblies that yield improvements in assembly metrics, including decreased genome size andmore »
The blue crab, Callinectes sapidus (Rathbun, 1896) is an economically, culturally, and ecologically important species found across the temperate and tropical North and South American Atlantic coast. A reference genome will enable research for this high-value species. Initial assembly combined 200× coverage Illumina paired-end reads, a 60× 8 kb mate-paired library, and 50× PacBio data using the MaSuRCA assembler resulting in a 985 Mb assembly with a scaffold N50 of 153 kb. Dovetail Chicago and HiC sequencing with the 3d DNA assembler and Juicebox assembly tools were then used for chromosome scaffolding. The 50 largest scaffolds span 810 Mb are 1.5–37 Mb long and have a repeat content of 36%. The 190 Mb unplaced sequence is in 3921 sequences over 10 kb with a repeat content of 68%. The final assembly N50 is 18.9 Mb for scaffolds and 9317 bases for contigs. Of arthropod BUSCO, ∼88% (888/1013) were complete and single copies. Using 309 million RNAseq read pairs from 12 different tissues and developmental stages, 25,249 protein-coding genes were predicted. Between C. sapidus and Portunus trituberculatus genomes, 41 of 50 large scaffolds had high nucleotide identity and protein-coding synteny, but 9 scaffolds in both assemblies were not clear matches. The protein-coding genes included 9423 one-to-one putative orthologs, ofmore »
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Chromosome-level genome assembly for the Aldabra giant tortoise enables insights into the genetic health of a threatened population
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We establish a high-quality chromosome-level reference genome for A. gigantea and one of the most complete turtle genomes available. We show that low-coverage whole-genome resequencing, for which alignment to the reference genome is a necessity, is a powerful tool to assess the population structure of the wild population and reveal the geographic origins of ex situ individuals relevant for genetic diversity management and rewilding efforts.