Now You See It, Now You Don’t: Star Formation Truncation Precedes the Loss of Molecular Gas by ∼100 Myr in Massive Poststarburst Galaxies at z ∼ 0.6
Abstract

We use ALMA observations of CO(2–1) in 13 massive (M*≳ 1011M) poststarburst galaxies atz∼ 0.6 to constrain the molecular gas content in galaxies shortly after they quench their major star-forming episode. The poststarburst galaxies in this study are selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey spectroscopic samples (Data Release 14) based on their spectral shapes, as part of the Studying QUenching at Intermediate-z Galaxies: Gas, angu$L→ar$momentum, and Evolution ($SQuIGGL⃗E$) program. Early results showed that two poststarburst galaxies host large H2reservoirs despite their low inferred star formation rates (SFRs). Here we expand this analysis to a larger statistical sample of 13 galaxies. Six of the primary targets (45%) are detected, with$MH2≳109$M. Given their high stellar masses, this mass limit corresponds to an average gas fraction of$〈fH2≡MH2/M*〉∼7%$or ∼14% using lower stellar masses estimates derived from analytic, exponentially declining star formation histories. The gas fraction correlates with theDn4000 spectral index, suggesting that the cold gas reservoirs decrease with time since burst, as found in local K+A galaxies. Star formation histories derived from flexible stellar population synthesis modeling support this more »

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Award ID(s):
Publication Date:
NSF-PAR ID:
10362450
Journal Name:
The Astrophysical Journal
Volume:
925
Issue:
2
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
Article No. 153
ISSN:
0004-637X
Publisher:
DOI PREFIX: 10.3847
National Science Foundation
##### More Like this
1. Abstract

Cosmic reionization was the last major phase transition of hydrogen from neutral to highly ionized in the intergalactic medium (IGM). Current observations show that the IGM is significantly neutral atz> 7 and largely ionized byz∼ 5.5. However, most methods to measure the IGM neutral fraction are highly model dependent and are limited to when the volume-averaged neutral fraction of the IGM is either relatively low ($x¯HI≲10−3$) or close to unity ($x¯HI∼1$). In particular, the neutral fraction evolution of the IGM at the critical redshift range ofz= 6–7 is poorly constrained. We present new constraints on$x¯HI$atz∼ 5.1–6.8 by analyzing deep optical spectra of 53 quasars at 5.73 <z< 7.09. We derive model-independent upper limits on the neutral hydrogen fraction based on the fraction of “dark” pixels identified in the Lyαand Lyβforests, without any assumptions on the IGM model or the intrinsic shape of the quasar continuum. They are the first model-independent constraints on the IGM neutral hydrogen fraction atz∼ 6.2–6.8 using quasar absorption measurements. Our results give upper limits of(1σ),$x¯HI(z=6.5)<0.87±0.03$(1σ), and$x¯HI(z=6.7)<0.94−0.09+0.06$(1σ). The dark pixel fractions atz> 6.1 are consistent with the redshift evolution of the neutral fraction of the IGM derived from Planck 2018.

2. Abstract

Recently, the Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array (HERA) has produced the experiment’s first upper limits on the power spectrum of 21 cm fluctuations atz∼ 8 and 10. Here, we use several independent theoretical models to infer constraints on the intergalactic medium (IGM) and galaxies during the epoch of reionization from these limits. We find that the IGM must have been heated above the adiabatic-cooling threshold byz∼ 8, independent of uncertainties about IGM ionization and the radio background. Combining HERA limits with complementary observations constrains the spin temperature of thez∼ 8 neutral IGM to 27 K$〈T¯S〉$630 K (2.3 K$〈T¯S〉$640 K) at 68% (95%) confidence. They therefore also place a lower bound on X-ray heating, a previously unconstrained aspects of early galaxies. For example, if the cosmic microwave background dominates thez∼ 8 radio background, the new HERA limits imply that the first galaxies produced X-rays more efficiently than local ones. Thez∼ 10 limits require even earlier heating if dark-matter interactions cool the hydrogen gas. If an extra radio background is produced by galaxies, we rule out (at 95% confidence) the combination of high radio and low X-raymore »

3. Abstract

We compare 500 pc scale, resolved observations of ionized and molecular gas for thez∼ 0.02 starbursting disk galaxy IRAS08339+6517, using measurements from KCWI and NOEMA. We explore the relationship of the star-formation-driven ionized gas outflows with colocated galaxy properties. We find a roughly linear relationship between the outflow mass flux ($Σ̇out$) and star formation rate surface density (ΣSFR),$Σ̇out∝ΣSFR1.06±0.10$, and a strong correlation between$Σ̇out$and the gas depletion time, such that$Σ̇out∝tdep−1.1±0.06$. Moreover, we find these outflows are so-calledbreakoutoutflows, according to the relationship between the gas fraction and disk kinematics. Assuming that ionized outflow mass scales with total outflow mass, our observations suggest that the regions of highest ΣSFRin IRAS08 are removing more gas via the outflow than through the conversion of gas into stars. Our results are consistent with a picture in which the outflow limits the ability of a region of a disk to maintain short depletion times. Our results underline the need for resolved observations of outflows in more galaxies.

4. Abstract

We perform particle-in-cell simulations to elucidate the microphysics of relativistic weakly magnetized shocks loaded with electron-positron pairs. Various external magnetizationsσ≲ 10−4and pair-loading factorsZ±≲ 10 are studied, whereZ±is the number of loaded electrons and positrons per ion. We find the following: (1) The shock becomes mediated by the ion Larmor gyration in the mean field whenσexceeds a critical valueσLthat decreases withZ±. AtσσLthe shock is mediated by particle scattering in the self-generated microturbulent fields, the strength and scale of which decrease withZ±, leading to lowerσL. (2) The energy fraction carried by the post-shock pairs is robustly in the range between 20% and 50% of the upstream ion energy. The mean energy per post-shock electron scales as$E¯e∝Z±+1−1$. (3) Pair loading suppresses nonthermal ion acceleration at magnetizations as low asσ≈ 5 × 10−6. The ions then become essentially thermal with mean energy$E¯i$, while electrons form a nonthermal tail, extending from$E∼Z±+1−1E¯i$to$E¯i$. Whenσ= 0, particle acceleration is enhanced by the formation of intense magnetic cavities that populate the precursor during the late stages of shock evolution. Here,more »

5. Abstract

State transitions in black hole X-ray binaries are likely caused by gas evaporation from a thin accretion disk into a hot corona. We present a height-integrated version of this process, which is suitable for analytical and numerical studies. With radiusrscaled to Schwarzschild units and coronal mass accretion rate$ṁc$to Eddington units, the results of the model are independent of black hole mass. State transitions should thus be similar in X-ray binaries and an active galactic nucleus. The corona solution consists of two power-law segments separated at a break radiusrb∼ 103(α/0.3)−2, whereαis the viscosity parameter. Gas evaporates from the disk to the corona forr>rb, and condenses back forr<rb. Atrb,$ṁc$reaches its maximum,$ṁc,max≈0.02(α/0.3)3$. If atrrbthe thin disk accretes with$ṁd, then the disk evaporates fully before reachingrb, giving the hard state. Otherwise, the disk survives at all radii, giving the thermal state. While the basic model considers only bremsstrahlung cooling and viscous heating, we also discuss a more realistic model that includes Compton cooling and direct coronal heating by energy transport from the disk. Solutions are again independent of black hole mass, andrbremainsmore »