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Title: Iterative subspace algorithms for finite-temperature solution of Dyson equation

One-particle Green’s functions obtained from the self-consistent solution of the Dyson equation can be employed in the evaluation of spectroscopic and thermodynamic properties for both molecules and solids. However, typical acceleration techniques used in the traditional quantum chemistry self-consistent algorithms cannot be easily deployed for the Green’s function methods because of a non-convex grand potential functional and a non-idempotent density matrix. Moreover, the optimization problem can become more challenging due to the inclusion of correlation effects, changing chemical potential, and fluctuations of the number of particles. In this paper, we study acceleration techniques to target the self-consistent solution of the Dyson equation directly. We use the direct inversion in the iterative subspace (DIIS), the least-squared commutator in the iterative subspace (LCIIS), and the Krylov space accelerated inexact Newton method (KAIN). We observe that the definition of the residual has a significant impact on the convergence of the iterative procedure. Based on the Dyson equation, we generalize the concept of the commutator residual used in DIIS and LCIIS and compare it with the difference residual used in DIIS and KAIN. The commutator residuals outperform the difference residuals for all considered molecular and solid systems within both GW and GF2. For a more » number of bond-breaking problems, we found that an easily obtained high-temperature solution with effectively suppressed correlations is a very effective starting point for reaching convergence of the problematic low-temperature solutions through a sequential reduction of temperature during calculations.

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Publication Date:
Journal Name:
The Journal of Chemical Physics
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
Article No. 094101
American Institute of Physics
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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Fig. 3(b) shows the tunneling probability T according to the Kane two-band model in the three materials, In0.53Ga0.47As, GaAs, and GaN, following our observation of a similar electroluminescence mechanism in GaN/AlN RTDs (due to strong polarization field of wurtzite structures) [8]. The expression is Tinter = (2/9)∙exp[(-2 ∙Ug 2 ∙me)/(2h∙P∙E)], where Ug is the bandgap energy, P is the valence-to-conduction-band momentum matrix element, and E is the electric field. Values for the highest calculated internal E fields for the InGaAs and GaN are also shown, indicating that Tinter in those structures approaches values of ~10-5. As shown, a GaAs RTD would require an internal field of ~6×105 V/cm, which is rarely realized in standard GaAs RTDs, perhaps explaining why there have been few if any reports of room-temperature electroluminescence in the GaAs devices. [1] E.R. Brown,et al., Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 58, 2291, 1991. [5] S. Sze, Physics of Semiconductor Devices, 2nd Ed. 12.2.1 (Wiley, 1981). [2] M. Feiginov et al., Appl. Phys. Lett., 99, 233506, 2011. [6] L. Coldren, Diode Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits, (Wiley, 1995). [3] Y. Nishida et al., Nature Sci. Reports, 9, 18125, 2019. [7] E.O. Kane, J. of Appl. Phy 32, 83 (1961). [4] P. Fakhimi, et al., 2019 DRC Conference Digest. [8] T. Growden, et al., Nature Light: Science & Applications 7, 17150 (2018). [5] S. Sze, Physics of Semiconductor Devices, 2nd Ed. 12.2.1 (Wiley, 1981). [6] L. Coldren, Diode Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits, (Wiley, 1995). [7] E.O. Kane, J. of Appl. Phy 32, 83 (1961). [8] T. Growden, et al., Nature Light: Science & Applications 7, 17150 (2018).« less