High crystalline quality thick β-Ga2O3drift layers are essential for multi-kV vertical power devices. Low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) is suitable for achieving high growth rates. This paper presents a systematic study of the Schottky barrier diodes fabricated on four different Si-doped homoepitaxial β-Ga2O3thin films grown on Sn-doped (010) and (001) β-Ga2O3substrates by LPCVD with a fast growth rate varying from 13 to 21 μm/h. A higher temperature growth results in the highest reported growth rate to date. Room temperature current density–voltage data for different Schottky diodes are presented, and diode characteristics, such as ideality factor, barrier height, specific on-resistance, and breakdown voltage are studied. Temperature dependence (25–250 °C) of the ideality factor, barrier height, and specific on-resistance is also analyzed from the J–V–T characteristics of the fabricated Schottky diodes.
- Publication Date:
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Journal Name:
- Applied Physics Letters
- Page Range or eLocation-ID:
- Article No. 122106
- American Institute of Physics
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
More Like this
The effects of downstream plasma exposure with O 2 , N 2 or CF 4 discharges on Si-doped Ga 2 O 3 Schottky diode forward and reverse current-voltage characteristics were investigated. The samples were exposed to discharges with rf power of 50 W plasma at a pressure of 400 mTorr and a fixed treatment time of 1 min to simulate dielectric layer removal, photoresist ashing or surface cleaning steps. Schottky contacts were deposited through a shadow mask after exposure to avoid any changes to the surface. A Schottky barrier height of 1.1 eV was obtained for the reference sample without plasma treatment, with an ideality factor of 1.0. The diodes exposed to CF 4 showed a 0.25 V shift from the I–V of the reference sample due to a Schottky barrier height lowering around 14%. The diodes showed a decrease of Schottky barrier height of 2.5 and 6.5% with O 2 or N 2 treatments, respectively. The effect of plasma exposure on the ideality factor of diodes treated with these plasmas was minimal; 0.2% for O 2 and N 2 , 0.3% for CF 4 , respectively. The reverse leakage currents were 1.2, 2.2 and 4.8 μ A cm −2more »
Focused Ga + ion milling of lightly Si-doped, n-type Ga 2 O 3 was performed with 2–30 kV ions at normal incidence and beam currents that were a function of beam voltage, 65 nA for 30 kV, 26 nA for 10 kV, 13 nA for 5 kV, and 7.1 nA for 2 kV, to keep the milling depth constant at 100 nm. Approximate milling rates were 15, 6, 2.75, and 1.5 μm 3 /s for 30, 10, 5, and 2 kV, respectively. The electrical effects of the ion damage were characterized by Schottky barrier height and diode ideality factor on vertical rectifier structures comprising 10 μm epitaxial n-Ga 2 O 3 on n + Ga 2 O 3 substrates, while the structural damage was imaged by transmission electron microscopy. The reverse bias leakage was largely unaffected even by milling at 30 kV beam energy, while the forward current-voltage characteristics showed significant deterioration at 5 kV, with an increase in the ideality factor from 1.25 to 2.25. The I–V characteristics no longer showed rectification for the 30 kV condition. Subsequent annealing up to 400 °C produced substantial recovery of the I–V characteristics for all beam energies and was sufficient to restore the initial ideality factor completely for beam energies up to 5 kV. Even the 30 kV-exposedmore »
Electrical properties of α-Ga 2 O 3 films grown by halide vapor phase epitaxy on sapphire with α-Cr 2 O 3 buffers
We report on growth and electrical properties of α-Ga2O3films prepared by halide vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) at 500 °C on α-Cr2O3buffers predeposited on sapphire by magnetron sputtering. The α-Cr2O3buffers showed a wide microcathodoluminescence (MCL) peak near 350 nm corresponding to the α-Cr2O3bandgap and a sharp MCL line near 700 nm due to the Cr+intracenter transition. Ohmic contacts to Cr2O3were made with both Ti/Au or Ni, producing linear current–voltage ( I– V) characteristics over a wide temperature range with an activation energy of conductivity of ∼75 meV. The sign of thermoelectric power indicated p-type conductivity of the buffers. Sn-doped, 2- μm-thick α-Ga2O3films prepared on this buffer by HVPE showed donor ionization energies of 0.2–0.25 eV, while undoped films were resistive with the Fermi level pinned at ECof 0.3 eV. The I– V and capacitance–voltage ( C– V) characteristics of Ni Schottky diodes on Sn-doped samples using a Cr2O3buffer indicated the presence of two face-to-face junctions, one between n-Ga2O3and p-Cr2O3, the other due to the Ni Schottky diode with n-Ga2O3. The spectral dependence of the photocurrent measured on the structure showed the presence of three major deep traps with optical ionization thresholds near 1.3, 2, and 2.8 eV. Photoinduced current transient spectroscopy spectra of the structures were dominated bymore »
The energy and beam current dependence of Ga+focused ion beam milling damage on the sidewall of vertical rectifiers fabricated on n-type Ga2O3was investigated with 5–30 kV ions and beam currents from 1.3–20 nA. The sidewall damage was introduced by etching a mesa along one edge of existing Ga2O3rectifiers. We employed on-state resistance, forward and reverse leakage current, Schottky barrier height, and diode ideality factor from the vertical rectifiers as potential measures of the extent of the ion-induced sidewall damage. Rectifiers of different diameters were exposed to the ion beams and the “zero-area” parameters extracted by extrapolating to zero area and normalizing for milling depth. Forward currents degraded with exposure to any of our beam conductions, while reverse current was unaffected. On-state resistance was found to be most sensitive of the device parameters to Ga+beam energy and current. Beam current was the most important parameter in creating sidewall damage. Use of subsequent lower beam energies and currents after an initial 30 kV mill sequence was able to reduce residual damage effects but not to the point of initial lower beam current exposures.
The thermal stability of n/n + β -Ga 2 O 3 epitaxial layer/substrate structures with sputtered ITO on both sides to act as rectifying contacts on the lightly doped layer and Ohmic on the heavily doped substrate is reported. The resistivity of the ITO deposited separately on Si decreased from 1.83 × 10 −3 Ω.cm as-deposited to 3.6 × 10 −4 Ω.cm after 300 °C anneal, with only minor reductions at higher temperatures (2.8 × 10 −4 Ω.cm after 600 °C anneals). The Schottky barrier height also decreased with annealing, from 0.98 eV in the as-deposited samples to 0.85 eV after 500 °C annealing. The reverse breakdown voltage exhibited a negative temperature coefficient of −0.46 V.C −1 up to an annealing temperature of 400 °C and degraded faster at higher temperatures. Transmission Electron Microscopy showed significant reaction at the ITO and Ga 2 O 3 interface above 300 °C, with a very degraded contact stack after annealing at 500 °C.