skip to main content

Title: Zwicky Transient Facility and Globular Clusters: The RR Lyrae gri-band Period–Luminosity–Metallicity and Period–Wesenheit–Metallicity Relations

Based on time-series observations collected from the Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF), we derived period–luminosity–metallicity (PLZ) and period–Wesenheit–metallicity (PWZ) relations for RR Lyrae located in globular clusters. We have applied various selection criteria to exclude RR Lyrae with problematic or spurious light curves. These selection criteria utilized information on the number of data points per light curve, amplitudes, colors, and residuals on the period–luminosity and/or period–Wesenheit relations. Due to blending, a number of RR Lyrae in globular clusters were found to be anomalously bright and have small amplitudes of their ZTF light curves. We used our final sample of ∼750 RR Lyrae in 46 globular clusters covering a wide metallicity range (−2.36 dex < [Fe/H] < −0.54 dex) to derive PLZ and PWZ relations in thegribands. In addition, we have also derived the period–color–metallicity and, for the first time, the period-Q-index-metallicity relations, where theQ-index is extinction-free by construction. We have compared our various relations to empirical and theoretical relations available in the literature and found a good agreement with most studies. Finally, we applied our derived PLZ relation to a dwarf galaxy, Crater II, and found that its true distance modulus should be larger than the most recent determination.

more » « less
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Publisher / Repository:
DOI PREFIX: 10.3847
Date Published:
Journal Name:
The Astronomical Journal
Medium: X Size: Article No. 239
["Article No. 239"]
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Abstract

    We present new empirical infrared period–luminosity–metallicity (PLZ) and period–Wesenheit–metallicity (PWZ) relations for RR Lyae based on the latest Gaia Early Data Release 3 (EDR3) parallaxes. The relations are provided in the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) W1 and W2 bands, as well as in the W(W1,V− W1) and W(W2,V− W2) Wesenheit magnitudes. The relations are calibrated using a very large sample of Galactic halo field RR Lyrae stars with homogeneous spectroscopic [Fe/H] abundances (over 1000 stars in the W1 band), covering a broad range of metallicities (−2.5 ≲ [Fe/H] ≲ 0.0). We test the performance of our PLZ and PWZ relations by determining the distance moduli of both galactic and extragalactic stellar associations: the Sculptor dwarf spheroidal galaxy in the Local Group (findingμ¯0=19.47±0.06), the Galactic globular clusters M4 (μ¯0=11.16±0.05), and the Reticulum globular cluster in the Large Magellanic Cloud (μ¯0=18.23±0.06). The distance moduli determined through all our relations are internally self-consistent (within ≲0.05 mag) but are systematically smaller (by ∼2–3σ) than previous literature measurements taken from a variety of methods/anchors. However, a comparison with similar recent RR Lyrae empirical relations anchored with EDR3 likewise shows, to varying extents, a systematically smaller distance modulus for PLZ/PWZ RR Lyrae relations.

    more » « less
  2. Abstract

    SX Phoenicis (SXP) variables are short-period pulsating stars that exhibit a period–luminosity (PL) relation. We derived thegri-band PL and extinction-free period–Wesenheit (PW) relations, as well as the period-color and reddening-free period-Q-index relations for 47 SXP stars located in 21 globular clusters, using the optical light curves taken from Zwicky Transient Facility. These empirical relations were derived for the first time in thegrifilters except for theg-band PL relation. We used ourgi-band PL and PW relations to derive a distance modulus to Crater II dwarf spheroidal which hosts one SXP variable. Assuming that the fundamental and first-overtone pulsation mode for the SXP variable in Crater II, we found distance moduli of 20.03 ± 0.23 mag and 20.37 ± 0.24 mag, respectively, using the PW relation, where the latter is in excellent agreement with independent RR Lyrae based distance to Crater II dwarf galaxy.

    more » « less

    RR Lyrae stars have long been popular standard candles, but significant advances in methodology and technology have been made in recent years to increase their precision as distance indicators. We present multiwavelength (optical UBVRcIc and Gaia G, BP, RP; near-infrared JHKs; mid-infrared [3.6], [4.5]) period–luminosity–metallicity (PLZ), period–Wesenheit–metallicity (PWZ) relations, calibrated using photometry obtained from the Carnegie RR Lyrae Program and parallaxes from the Gaia second data release for 55 Galactic field RR Lyrae stars. The metallicity slope, which has long been predicted by theoretical relations, can now be measured in all passbands. The scatter in the PLZ relations is on the order of 0.2 mag, and is still dominated by uncertainties in the parallaxes. As a consistency check of our PLZ relations, we also measure the distance modulus to the globular cluster M4, the Large Magellanic Cloud and the Small Magellanic Cloud, and our results are in excellent agreement with estimates from previous studies.

    more » « less
  4. In this work, we aimed to derive the gri-band period-luminosity (PL) and period-luminosity-color (PLC) relations for late-type contact binaries, for the first time, located in the globular clusters, using the homogeneous light curves collected by the Zwicky Transient Factory (ZTF). We started with 79 contact binaries in 15 globular clusters, and retained 30 contact binaries in 10 globular clusters that have adequate number of data points in the ZTF light curves and unaffected by blending. Magnitudes at mean and maximum light of these contact binaries were determined using a fourth-order Fourier expansion, while extinction corrections were done using the {\tt Bayerstar2019} 3D reddening map together with adopting the homogeneous distances to their host globular clusters. After removing early-type and "anomaly" contact binaries, our derived gri-band PL and period-Wesenheit (PW) relations exhibit a much larger dispersion with large errors on the fitted coefficients. Nevertheless, the gr-band PL and PW relations based on this small sample of contact binaries in globular clusters were consistent with those based on a larger sample of nearby contact binaries. Good agreements of the PL and PW relations suggested both samples of contact binaries in the local Solar neighborhood and in the distant globular clusters can be combined and used to derive and calibrate the PL, PW and PLC relations. The final derived gr-band PL, PW and PLC relations were much improved than those based on the limited sample of contact binaries in the globular clusters. 
    more » « less
  5. Abstract

    We present the firstgri-band period–luminosity (PL) and period–Wesenheit (PW) relations for the fundamental mode anomalous Cepheids. These PL and PW relations were derived from a combined sample of five anomalous Cepheids in globular cluster M92 and the Large Magellanic Cloud, both of which have distance accurate to ∼1% available from literature. Ourg-band PL relation is similar to theB-band PL relation as reported in previous study. We applied our PL and PW relations to anomalous Cepheids discovered in dwarf galaxy Crater II, and found a larger but consistent distance modulus than the recent measurements based on RR Lyrae. Our calibrations ofgri-band PL and PW relations, even though less precise due to small number of anomalous Cepheids, will be useful for distance measurements to dwarf galaxies.

    more » « less