skip to main content

Title: The SDSS-HET Survey of Kepler Eclipsing Binaries. A Sample of Four Benchmark Binaries

The purpose of this work is to extend a sample of accurately modeled, benchmark-grade eclipsing binaries (EBs) with accurately determined masses and radii. We select four “well-behaved” Kepler binaries, KIC 2306740, KIC 4076952, KIC 5193386 and KIC 5288543, each with at least eight double-lined spectra from the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment instrument that is part of the Sloan Digital Sky Surveys III and IV, and from the Hobby–Eberly High Resolution Spectrograph. We obtain masses and radii with uncertainties of 2.5% or less for all four systems. Three of these systems have orbital periods longer than 9 days, and thus populate an undersampled region of the parameter space for extremely well-characterized detached EBs. We compare the derived masses and radii againstmesa mistisochrones to determine the ages of the systems. All systems were found to be coeval, showing that the results are consistent acrossmesa mistandphoebe.

; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Journal Name:
The Astrophysical Journal
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
Article No. 75
DOI PREFIX: 10.3847
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Abstract

    Two magnetic braking models are implemented inMESAfor use in theMISTstellar model grids. Stars less than about 1.3 solar masses are observed to spin down over time through interaction with their magnetized stellar winds (i.e., magnetic braking). This is the basis for gyrochronology and is fundamental to the evolution of lower-mass stars. The detailed physics behind magnetic braking are uncertain, as are 1D stellar evolution models. Thus, we calibrate our models and compare to data from open clusters. Each braking model tested here is capable of reproducing aspects of the data, with important distinctions; neither fully accounts for the observations. The Matt et al. prescription matches the slowly rotating stars observed in open clusters but tends to overestimate the presence of rapidly rotating stars. The Garraffo et al. prescription often produces too much angular momentum loss to accurately match the observed slow sequence for lower-mass stars but reproduces the bimodal nature of slowly and rapidly rotating stars observed in open clusters fairly well. Our models additionally do not reproduce the observed solar lithium depletion, corroborating previous findings that effects other than rotation may be important. We find additional evidence that some level of mass dependency may be missing in thesemore »braking models to match the rotation periods observed in clusters older than 1 Gyr better.

    « less
  2. ABSTRACT Accurate stellar parameters of stars in open clusters can help constrain models of stellar structure and evolution. Here, we wish to determine the age and metallicity content of the open cluster NGC 2506. To this end, we investigated three detached eclipsing binaries (DEBs; V2032, V4, and V5) for which we determined their masses and radii, as well as four red giant branch stars for which we determined their effective temperatures, surface gravities, and metallicities. Three of the stars in the DEBs have masses close to the cluster turn-off mass, allowing for extremely precise age determination. Comparing the values for the masses and radii of the binaries to BaSTI (a Bag of Stellar Tracks and Isochrones) isochrones, we estimated a cluster age of 2.01 ± 0.10 Gyr. This does depend on the models used in the comparison, where we have found that the inclusion of convective core-overshooting is necessary to properly model the cluster. From red giant branch stars, we determined values for the effective temperatures, the surface gravities, and the metallicities. From these we find a cluster metallicity of −0.36 ± 0.10 dex. Using this value and the values for the effective temperatures, we determine the reddening to be E(b − y) = 0.057 ± 0.004 mag. Furthermore, we derivedmore »the distance to the cluster from Gaia parallaxes and found 3.101 ± 0.017 kpc, and we have performed a radial velocity membership determination for stars in the field of the cluster. Finally, we report on the detection of oscillation signals in γ Dor and δ Scuti members in data from the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) mission, including the possible detection of solar-like oscillations in two of the red giants.« less

    Detached eclipsing binaries are a fundamental tool for measuring the physical parameters of stars that are effectively evolving in isolation. Starting from more than 40 000 eclipsing binary candidates identified by the All-Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae (ASAS-SN), we use PHOEBE to determine the sum of the fractional radii, the ratio of effective temperatures, the inclinations, and the eccentricities for 35 576 systems. We visually inspect all the light-curve models to verify the model fits and examine the TESS light curves, when available, to select systems with evidence for additional physics, such as spots, mass transfer, and hierarchical triples. We examine the distributions of the eclipsing binary model parameters and the orbital parameters. We identify two groups in the sum of the fractional radii and effective temperature ratio parameter space that may distinguish systems approaching the semidetached limit. Combining Gaia EDR3 with extinction estimates from three-dimensional dust maps, we examine the properties of the systems as a function of their absolute magnitude and evolutionary state. Finally, we present light curves of selected eclipsing binaries that may be of interest for follow-up studies.


    We constrain the orbital period (Porb) distribution of low-mass detached main-sequence eclipsing binaries (EBs) with light-curves from the Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF), which provides a well-understood selection function and sensitivity to faint stars. At short periods (Porb ≲ 2 d), binaries are predicted to evolve significantly due to magnetic braking (MB), which shrinks orbits and ultimately brings detached binaries into contact. The period distribution is thus a sensitive probe of MB. We find that the intrinsic period distribution of low-mass (0.1 ≲ M1/M⊙ < 0.9) binaries is basically flat (${\rm d}N/{\rm d}P_{\rm orb} \propto P_{\rm orb}^0$) from Porb = 10 d down to the contact limit. This is strongly inconsistent with predictions of classical MB models based on the Skumanich relation, which are widely used in binary evolution calculations and predict ${\rm d}N/{\rm d}P_{\rm orb} \propto P_{\rm orb}^{7/3}$ at short periods. The observed distributions are best reproduced by models in which the magnetic field saturates at short periods with a MB torque that scales roughly as $\dot{J}\propto P_{\rm orb}^{-1}$, as opposed to $\dot{J} \propto P_{\rm orb}^{-3}$ in the standard Skumanich law. We also find no significant difference between the period distributions of binaries containing fully and partially convective stars. Our results confirmmore »that a saturated MB law, which was previously found to describe the spin-down of rapidly rotating isolated M dwarfs, also operates in tidally locked binaries. We advocate using saturated MB models in binary evolution calculations. Our work supports previous suggestions that MB in cataclysmic variables (CVs) is much weaker than assumed in the standard evolutionary model, unless mass transfer leads to significant additional angular momentum loss in CVs.

    « less
  5. Abstract

    Gravitational-wave observations of binary black hole (BBH) systems point to black hole spin magnitudes being relatively low. These measurements appear in tension with high spin measurements for high-mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs). We use grids of MESA simulations combined with the rapid population-synthesis code COSMIC to examine the origin of these two binary populations. It has been suggested that Case-A mass transfer while both stars are on the main sequence can form high-spin BHs in HMXBs. Assuming this formation channel, we show that depending on the critical mass ratios for the stability of mass transfer, 48%–100% of these Case-A HMXBs merge during the common-envelope phase and up to 42% result in binaries too wide to merge within a Hubble time. Both MESA and COSMIC show that high-spin HMXBs formed through Case-A mass transfer can only form merging BBHs within a small parameter space where mass transfer can lead to enough orbital shrinkage to merge within a Hubble time. We find that only up to 11% of these Case-A HMXBs result in BBH mergers, and at most 20% of BBH mergers came from Case-A HMXBs. Therefore, it is not surprising that these two spin distributions are observed to be different.