Exposing female house mice (
When animals are sick, their physiology and behavior change in ways that can impact their offspring. Research is emerging showing that infection risk alone can also modify the physiology and behavior of healthy animals. If physiological responses to environments with high infection risk take place during reproduction, it is possible that they lead to maternal effects. Understanding whether and how high infection risk triggers maternal effects is important to elucidate how the impacts of infectious agents extend beyond infected individuals and how, in this way, they are even stronger evolutionary forces than already considered. Here, to evaluate the effects of infection risk on maternal responses, we exposed healthy female Japanese quail to either an immune-challenged (lipopolysaccharide [LPS] treated) mate or to a healthy (control) mate. We first assessed how females responded behaviorally to these treatments. Exposure to an immune-challenged or control male was immediately followed by exposure to a healthy male, to determine whether treatment affected paternity allocation. We predicted that females paired with immune-challenged males would avoid and show aggression towards those males, and that paternity would be skewed towards the healthy male. After mating, we collected eggs over a 5-day period. As an additional control, we collected more »
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- Integrative and Comparative Biology
- Oxford University Press
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- National Science Foundation
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Exposing female house mice (
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