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Title: Near-ideal electromechanical coupling in textured piezoelectric ceramics

Electromechanical coupling factor,k, of piezoelectric materials determines the conversion efficiency of mechanical to electrical energy or electrical to mechanical energy. Here, we provide an fundamental approach to design piezoelectric materials that provide near-ideal magnitude ofk, via exploiting the electrocrystalline anisotropy through fabrication of grain-oriented or textured ceramics. Coupled phase field simulation and experimental investigation on <001> textured Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-Pb(Zr,Ti)O3ceramics illustrate thatkcan reach same magnitude as that for a single crystal, far beyond the average value of traditional ceramics. To provide atomistic-scale understanding of our approach, we employ a theoretical model to determine the physical origin ofkin perovskite ferroelectrics and find that strong covalent bonding between B-site cation and oxygen viad-phybridization contributes most towards the magnitude ofk. This demonstration of near-idealkvalue in textured ceramics will have tremendous impact on design of ultra-wide bandwidth, high efficiency, high power density, and high stability piezoelectric devices.

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Publication Date:
Journal Name:
Nature Communications
Nature Publishing Group
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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Fig. 3(b) shows the tunneling probability T according to the Kane two-band model in the three materials, In0.53Ga0.47As, GaAs, and GaN, following our observation of a similar electroluminescence mechanism in GaN/AlN RTDs (due to strong polarization field of wurtzite structures) [8]. The expression is Tinter = (2/9)∙exp[(-2 ∙Ug 2 ∙me)/(2h∙P∙E)], where Ug is the bandgap energy, P is the valence-to-conduction-band momentum matrix element, and E is the electric field. Values for the highest calculated internal E fields for the InGaAs and GaN are also shown, indicating that Tinter in those structures approaches values of ~10-5. As shown, a GaAs RTD would require an internal field of ~6×105 V/cm, which is rarely realized in standard GaAs RTDs, perhaps explaining why there have been few if any reports of room-temperature electroluminescence in the GaAs devices. [1] E.R. Brown,et al., Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 58, 2291, 1991. [5] S. 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