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Title: Using Simple, Explainable Neural Networks to Predict the Madden‐Julian Oscillation

Few studies have utilized machine learning techniques to predict or understand the Madden‐Julian oscillation (MJO), a key source of subseasonal variability and predictability. Here, we present a simple framework for real‐time MJO prediction using shallow artificial neural networks (ANNs). We construct two ANN architectures, one deterministic and one probabilistic, that predict a real‐time MJO index using maps of tropical variables. These ANNs make skillful MJO predictions out to ∼18 days in October‐March and ∼11 days in April‐September, outperforming conventional linear models and efficiently capturing aspects of MJO predictability found in more complex, dynamical models. The flexibility and explainability of simple ANN frameworks are highlighted through varying model input and applying ANN explainability techniques that reveal sources and regions important for ANN prediction skill. The accessibility, performance, and efficiency of this simple machine learning framework is more broadly applicable to predict and understand other Earth system phenomena.

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Award ID(s):
1841754 2020305
Author(s) / Creator(s):
 ;  ;  
Publisher / Repository:
DOI PREFIX: 10.1029
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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