skip to main content

Title: Disks and Outflows in the Intermediate-mass Star-forming Region NGC 2071 IR

We present Atacama Large Millimeter Array band 6/7 (1.3 mm/0.87 mm) and Very Large Array Ka-band (9 mm) observations toward NGC 2071 IR, an intermediate-mass star-forming region. We characterize the continuum and associated molecular line emission toward the most luminous protostars, i.e., IRS1 and IRS3, on ∼100 au (0.″2) scales. IRS1 is partly resolved in the millimeter and centimeter continuum, which shows a potential disk. IRS3 has a well-resolved disk appearance in the millimeter continuum and is further resolved into a close binary system separated by ∼40 au at 9 mm. Both sources exhibit clear velocity gradients across their disk major axes in multiple spectral lines including C18O, H2CO, SO, SO2, and complex organic molecules like CH3OH,13CH3OH, and CH3OCHO. We use an analytic method to fit the Keplerian rotation of the disks and give constraints on physical parameters with a Markov Chain Monte Carlo routine. The IRS3 binary system is estimated to have a total mass of 1.4–1.5M. IRS1 has a central mass of 3–5Mbased on both kinematic modeling and its spectral energy distribution, assuming that it is dominated by a single protostar. For both IRS1 and IRS3, the inferred ejection directions from different tracers, including radio jet, water maser, molecular outflow, and H2emission, are not always consistent, and for IRS1 these can be misaligned by ∼50°. IRS3 is better explained by a single precessing jet. A similar mechanism may be present in IRS1 as well but an unresolved multiple system in IRS1 is also possible.

more » « less
Award ID(s):
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Publisher / Repository:
DOI PREFIX: 10.3847
Date Published:
Journal Name:
The Astrophysical Journal
Medium: X Size: Article No. 178
Article No. 178
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Abstract

    We have observed the Class 0/I protostellar system Ced110 IRS4 at an angular resolution of 0.″05 (∼10 au) as part of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array large program, Early Planet Formation in Embedded Disks. The 1.3 mm dust continuum emission reveals that Ced110 IRS4 is a binary system with a projected separation of ∼250 au. The continuum emissions associated with the main source and its companion, named Ced110 IRS4A and IRS4B, respectively, exhibit disk-like shapes and likely arise from dust disks around the protostars. The continuum emission of Ced110 IRS4A has a radius of ∼110 au (∼0.″6) and shows bumps along its major axis with an asymmetry. The bumps can be interpreted as a shallow, ring-like structure at a radius of ∼40 au (∼0.″2) in the continuum emission, as demonstrated from two-dimensional intensity distribution models. A rotation curve analysis on the C18O and13COJ= 2–1 lines reveals the presence of a Keplerian disk within a radius of 120 au around Ced110 IRS4A, which supports the interpretation that the dust continuum emission arises from a disk. The ring-like structure in the dust continuum emission might indicate a possible annular substructure in the surface density of the embedded disk, although the possibility that it is an apparent structure due to the optically thick continuum emission cannot be ruled out.

    more » « less
  2. Abstract We report an Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array 0.88 mm (Band 7) continuum detection of the accretion disk around SR 12 c, an ∼11 M Jup planetary-mass companion (PMC) orbiting its host binary at 980 au. This is the first submillimeter detection of a circumplanetary disk around a wide PMC. The disk has a flux density of 127 ± 14 μ Jy and is not resolved by the ∼0.″1 beam, so the dust disk radius is likely less than 5 au and can be much smaller if the dust continuum is optically thick. If, however, the dust emission is optically thin, then the SR 12 c disk has a comparable dust mass to the circumplanetary disk around PDS 70 c but is about five times lower than that of the ∼12 M Jup free-floating OTS 44. This suggests that disks around bound and unbound planetary-mass objects can span a wide range of masses. The gas mass estimated with an accretion rate of 10 −11 M ☉ yr −1 implies a gas-to-dust ratio higher than 100. If cloud absorption is not significant, a nondetection of 12 CO(3–2) implies a compact gas disk around SR 12 c. Future sensitive observations may detect more PMC disks at 0.88 mm flux densities of ≲100 μ Jy. 
    more » « less
  3. Abstract

    Studying the physical and chemical conditions of young embedded disks is crucial to constrain the initial conditions for planet formation. Here we present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array observations of dust continuum at ∼0.″06 (8 au) resolution and molecular line emission at ∼0.″17 (24 au) resolution toward the Class 0 protostar L1527 IRS from the Large Program eDisk (Early Planet Formation in Embedded Disks). The continuum emission is smooth without substructures but asymmetric along both the major and minor axes of the disk as previously observed. The detected lines of12CO,13CO, C18O, H2CO, c-C3H2, SO, SiO, and DCN trace different components of the protostellar system, with a disk wind potentially visible in12CO. The13CO brightness temperature and the H2CO line ratio confirm that the disk is too warm for CO freezeout, with the snowline located at ∼350 au in the envelope. Both molecules show potential evidence of a temperature increase around the disk–envelope interface. SO seems to originate predominantly in UV-irradiated regions such as the disk surface and the outflow cavity walls rather than at the disk–envelope interface as previously suggested. Finally, the continuum asymmetry along the minor axis is consistent with the inclination derived from the large-scale (100″ or 14,000 au) outflow, but opposite to that based on the molecular jet and envelope emission, suggesting a misalignment in the system. Overall, these results highlight the importance of observing multiple molecular species in multiple transitions to characterize the physical and chemical environment of young disks.

    more » « less
  4. Abstract

    We report Very Large Array observations in theQband toward 10 ionized jet candidates to search for SiO emission, a well-known shocked gas tracer. We detected 7 mm continuum counterparts toward 90% of the jet candidates. In most cases, the jet candidate is located toward the center of the 7 mm core, and the high masses (≈100M) and densities (≈107cm−3) of the cores suggest that the central objects are very young high-mass protostars. We detected SiOJ= 1–0 emission associated with six target sources. In all cases, the morphology and spectrum of the emission is consistent with what is expected for molecular jets along an outflow axis, thus confirming the jet nature of 60% of our sample. Our data suggest a positive correlation between the SiO luminosityLSiO, and both the bolometric luminosityLBoland the radio luminositySνd2of the driving sources.

    more » « less
  5. Abstract

    A compact source, G0.02467–0.0727, was detected in Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array 3 mm observations in continuum and very broad line emission. The continuum emission has a spectral indexα≈ 3.3, suggesting that the emission is from dust. The line emission is detected in several transitions of CS, SO, and SO2and exhibits a line width FWHM ≈ 160 km s−1. The line profile appears Gaussian. The emission is weakly spatially resolved, coming from an area on the sky ≲1″ in diameter (≲104au at the distance of the Galactic center, GC). The centroid velocity isvLSR≈ 40–50 km s−1, which is consistent with a location in the GC. With multiple SO lines detected, and assuming local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) conditions, the gas temperature isTLTE= 13 K, which is colder than seen in typical GC clouds, though we cannot rule out low-density, subthermally excited, warmer gas. Despite the high velocity dispersion, no emission is observed from SiO, suggesting that there are no strong (≳10 km s−1) shocks in the molecular gas. There are no detections at other wavelengths, including X-ray, infrared, and radio. We consider several explanations for the millimeter ultra-broad-line object (MUBLO), including protostellar outflow, explosive outflow, a collapsing cloud, an evolved star, a stellar merger, a high-velocity compact cloud, an intermediate-mass black hole, and a background galaxy. Most of these conceptual models are either inconsistent with the data or do not fully explain them. The MUBLO is, at present, an observationally unique object.

    more » « less