Reionization time of the Local Group and Local-Group-like halo pairs
ABSTRACT

Patchy cosmic reionization resulted in the ionizing UV background asynchronous rise across the Universe. The latter might have left imprints visible in present-day observations. Several numerical simulation-based studies show correlations between the reionization time and overdensities and object masses today. To remove the mass from the study, as it may not be the sole important parameter, this paper focuses solely on the properties of paired haloes within the same mass range as the Milky Way. For this purpose, it uses CoDaII, a fully coupled radiation hydrodynamics reionization simulation of the local Universe. This simulation holds a halo pair representing the Local Group, in addition to other pairs, sharing similar mass, mass ratio, distance separation, and isolation criteria but in other environments, alongside isolated haloes within the same mass range. Investigations of the paired halo reionization histories reveal a wide diversity although always inside-out, given our reionization model. Within this model, haloes in a close pair tend to be reionized at the same time but being in a pair does not bring to an earlier time their mean reionization. The only significant trend is found between the total energy at z = 0 of the pairs and their mean reionization time: more »

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
NSF-PAR ID:
10369306
Journal Name:
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Volume:
515
Issue:
2
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
p. 2970-2980
ISSN:
0035-8711
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
National Science Foundation
More Like this
1. (Ed.)
ABSTRACT We examine the prevalence, longevity, and causes of planes of satellite dwarf galaxies, as observed in the Local Group. We use 14 Milky Way/Andromeda-(MW/M31) mass host galaxies from the Feedback In Realistic Environments-2 simulations. We select the 14 most massive satellites by stellar mass within $d_\mathrm{host}\le 300\mathrm{\, kpc}$ of each host and correct for incompleteness from the foreground galactic disc when comparing to the MW. We find that MW-like planes as spatially thin and/or kinematically coherent as observed are uncommon, but they do exist in our simulations. Spatially thin planes occur in 1–2 per cent of snapshots during z = 0−0.2, and kinematically coherent planes occur in 5 per cent of snapshots. These planes are generally transient, surviving for <500 Myr. However, if we select hosts with a Large Magellanic Cloud-like satellite near first pericentre, the fraction of snapshots with MW-like planes increases dramatically to 7–16 per cent, with lifetimes of  0.7–1 Gyr, likely because of group accretion of satellites. We find that M31’s satellite distribution is much more common: M31’s satellites lie within ∼1σ of the simulation median for every plane metric we consider. We find no significant difference in average satellite planarity for isolated hosts versus hosts in LG-like pairs. Baryonic and dark matter-only simulations exhibitmore »
2. ABSTRACT

We introduce the Astrid  simulation, a large-scale cosmological hydrodynamic simulation in a $250 \, h^{-1}\mathrm{Mpc}$ box with 2 × 55003 particles. Astrid contains a large number of high redshift galaxies, which can be compared to future survey data, and resolves galaxies in haloes more massive than $2\times 10^9 \, \mathrm{M}_{\odot }$. Astrid  has been run from z = 99 to 3. As a particular focus is modelling the high redshift Universe, it contains models for inhomogeneous hydrogen and helium reionization, baryon relative velocities and massive neutrinos, as well as supernova and AGN feedback. The black hole model includes mergers driven by dynamical friction rather than repositioning. We briefly summarize the implemented models, and the technical choices we took when developing the simulation code. We validate the model, showing good agreement with observed ultraviolet luminosity functions, galaxy stellar mass functions and specific star formation rates (SFRs). We show that the redshift at which a given galaxy underwent hydrogen reionization has a large effect on the halo gas fraction. Finally, at z = 6, haloes with $M \sim 2\times 10^9 \, \mathrm{M}_{\odot }$ which have been reionized have an SFR 1.5 times greater than those which have not yet been reionized.

3. ABSTRACT We study star formation histories (SFHs) of 500 dwarf galaxies (stellar mass $M_\ast =10^5\!-\!10^9\, \rm {M}_\odot$) from FIRE-2 cosmological zoom-in simulations. We compare dwarfs around individual Milky Way (MW)-mass galaxies, dwarfs in Local Group (LG)-like environments, and true field (i.e. isolated) dwarf galaxies. We reproduce observed trends wherein higher mass dwarfs quench later (if at all), regardless of environment. We also identify differences between the environments, both in terms of ‘satellite versus central’ and ‘LG versus individual MW versus isolated dwarf central.’ Around the individual MW-mass hosts, we recover the result expected from environmental quenching: central galaxies in the ‘near field’ have more extended SFHs than their satellite counterparts, with the former more closely resemble isolated (true field) dwarfs (though near-field centrals are still somewhat earlier forming). However, this difference is muted in the LG-like environments, where both near-field centrals and satellites have similar SFHs, which resemble satellites of single MW-mass hosts. This distinction is strongest for M* = 106–$10^7\, \rm {M}_\odot$ but exists at other masses. Our results suggest that the paired halo nature of the LG may regulate star formation in dwarf galaxies even beyond the virial radii of the MW and Andromeda. Caution is needed when comparingmore »
4. Abstract

The dividing line between galaxies that are quenched by reionization (“relics”) and galaxies that survive reionization (i.e., continue forming stars) is commonly discussed in terms of a halo mass threshold. We probe this threshold in a physically more complete and accurate way than has been possible to date, using five extremely high resolution (Mtarget= 4M) cosmological zoom-in simulations of dwarf galaxies within the halo mass range (1–4) × 109M. The employed LYRA simulation model features resolved interstellar medium physics and individual, resolved supernova explosions. Interestingly, two out of five of the simulated dwarf galaxies lie close to the threshold mass but are neither full reionization relics nor full reionization survivors. These galaxies initially quench at the time of reionization but merely remain quiescent for ∼500 Myr. Atz∼ 5 they recommence star formation in a synchronous way and remain star-forming until the present day. The parallel timing indicates consistent sound-crossing and cooling times between the halos. While the star formation histories we find are diverse, we show that they are directly related to the ability of a given halo to retain and cool gas. Whereas the latter is most strongly dependent on the mass (or virial temperature) of the hostmore »

5. ABSTRACT We present the star formation history (SFH) of the isolated (D ∼ 970 kpc) Local Group dwarf galaxy Wolf–Lundmark–Melotte (WLM) measured from colour–magnitude diagrams (CMDs) constructed from deep Hubble Space Telescope imaging. Our observations include a central ($0.5 \, r_h$) and outer field ($0.7 \, r_h$) that reach below the oldest main-sequence turn-off. WLM has no early dominant episode of star formation: 20 per cent of its stellar mass formed by ∼12.5 Gyr ago ($z$ ∼ 5). It also has an SFR that rises to the present with 50 per cent of the stellar mass within the most recent 5 Gyr ($z$ < 0.7). There is evidence of a strong age gradient: the mean age of the outer field is 5 Gyr older than the inner field despite being only 0.4 kpc apart. Some models suggest such steep gradients are associated with strong stellar feedback and dark-matter core creation. The SFHs of real isolated dwarf galaxies and those from the Feedback in Realistic Environment suite are in good agreement for M⋆($z$ = 0) ∼ 107–109M⊙, but in worse agreement at lower masses ($M_{\star }(z=0) \sim 10^5\!-\!10^7 \, \mathrm{M}_{\odot }$). These differences may be explainable by systematics in the models (e.g. reionization model) and/or observations (HST field placement). Wemore »