Photonic molecules can realize complex optical energy modes that simulate states of matter and have application to quantum, linear, and nonlinear optical systems. To achieve their full potential, it is critical to scale the photonic molecule energy state complexity and provide flexible, controllable, stable, high-resolution energy state engineering with low power tuning mechanisms. In this work, we demonstrate a controllable, silicon nitride integrated photonic molecule, with three high-quality factor ring resonators strongly coupled to each other and individually actuated using ultralow-power thin-film lead zirconate titanate (PZT) tuning. The resulting six tunable supermodes can be fully controlled, including their degeneracy, location, and degree of splitting, and the PZT actuator design yields narrow PM energy state linewidths below 58 MHz without degradation as the resonance shifts, with over an order of magnitude improvement in resonance splitting-to-width ratio of 58, and power consumption of 90 nW per actuator, with a 1-dB photonic molecule loss. The strongly coupled PZT-controlled resonator design provides a high-degree of resolution and controllability in accessing the supermodes. Given the low loss of the silicon nitride platform from the visible to infrared and the three individual bus, six-port design, these results open the door to novel device designs and a wide range of applications including tunable lasers, high-order suppression ultranarrow-linewidth lasers, dispersion engineering, optical parametric oscillators, physics simulations, and atomic and quantum photonics.
Modulation-based control and locking of lasers, filters and other photonic components is a ubiquitous function across many applications that span the visible to infrared (IR), including atomic, molecular and optical (AMO), quantum sciences, fiber communications, metrology, and microwave photonics. Today, modulators used to realize these control functions consist of high-power bulk-optic components for tuning, sideband modulation, and phase and frequency shifting, while providing low optical insertion loss and operation from DC to 10s of MHz. In order to reduce the size, weight and cost of these applications and improve their scalability and reliability, modulation control functions need to be implemented in a low loss, wafer-scale CMOS-compatible photonic integration platform. The silicon nitride integration platform has been successful at realizing extremely low waveguide losses across the visible to infrared and components including high performance lasers, filters, resonators, stabilization cavities, and optical frequency combs. Yet, progress towards implementing low loss, low power modulators in the silicon nitride platform, while maintaining wafer-scale process compatibility has been limited. Here we report a significant advance in integration of a piezo-electric (PZT, lead zirconate titanate) actuated micro-ring modulation in a fully-planar, wafer-scale silicon nitride platform, that maintains low optical loss (0.03 dB/cm in a 625 µm resonator) at 1550 nm, with an order of magnitude increase in bandwidth (DC - 15 MHz 3-dB and DC - 25 MHz 6-dB) and order of magnitude lower power consumption of 20 nW improvement over prior PZT modulators. The modulator provides a >14 dB extinction ratio (ER) and 7.1 million quality-factor (Q) over the entire 4 GHz tuning range, a tuning efficiency of 162 MHz/V, and delivers the linearity required for control applications with 65.1 dB·Hz2/3and 73.8 dB·Hz2/3third-order intermodulation distortion (IMD3) spurious free dynamic range (SFDR) at 1 MHz and 10 MHz respectively. We demonstrate two control applications, laser stabilization in a Pound-Drever Hall (PDH) lock loop, reducing laser frequency noise by 40 dB, and as a laser carrier tracking filter. This PZT modulator design can be extended to the visible in the ultra-low loss silicon nitride platform with minor waveguide design changes. This integration of PZT modulation in the ultra-low loss silicon nitride waveguide platform enables modulator control functions in a wide range of visible to IR applications such as atomic and molecular transition locking for cooling, trapping and probing, controllable optical frequency combs, low-power external cavity tunable lasers, quantum computers, sensors and communications, atomic clocks, and tunable ultra-low linewidth lasers and ultra-low phase noise microwave synthesizers.more » « less
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Publisher / Repository:
- Optical Society of America
- Date Published:
- Journal Name:
- Optics Express
- 1094-4087; OPEXFF
- Page Range / eLocation ID:
- Article No. 31816
- Medium: X
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
More Like this
Abstract Narrow linewidth visible light lasers are critical for atomic, molecular and optical (AMO) physics including atomic clocks, quantum computing, atomic and molecular spectroscopy, and sensing. Stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) is a promising approach to realize highly coherent on-chip visible light laser emission. Here we report demonstration of a visible light photonic integrated Brillouin laser, with emission at 674 nm, a 14.7 mW optical threshold, corresponding to a threshold density of 4.92 mW μm −2 , and a 269 Hz linewidth. Significant advances in visible light silicon nitride/silica all-waveguide resonators are achieved to overcome barriers to SBS in the visible, including 1 dB/meter waveguide losses, 55.4 million quality factor (Q), and measurement of the 25.110 GHz Stokes frequency shift and 290 MHz gain bandwidth. This advancement in integrated ultra-narrow linewidth visible wavelength SBS lasers opens the door to compact quantum and atomic systems and implementation of increasingly complex AMO based physics and experiments.more » « less
Electro-optic (EO) modulators rely on the interaction of optical and electrical signals with second-order nonlinear media. For the optical signal, this interaction can be strongly enhanced using dielectric slot–waveguide structures that exploit a field discontinuity at the interface between a high-index waveguide core and the low-index EO cladding. In contrast to this, the electrical signal is usually applied through conductive regions in the direct vicinity of the optical waveguide. To avoid excessive optical loss, the conductivity of these regions is maintained at a moderate level, thus leading to inherent
RClimitations of the modulation bandwidth. In this paper, we show that these limitations can be overcome by extending the slot–waveguide concept to the modulating radio-frequency (RF) signal. Our device combines an RF slotline that relies on as a high-k dielectric material with a conventional silicon photonic slot waveguide and a highly efficient organic EO cladding material. In a proof-of-concept experiment, we demonstrate a 1 mm long Mach–Zehnder modulator that offers a 3 dB bandwidth of 76 GHz and a 6 dB bandwidth of 110 GHz along with a small voltage of 1.3 V ( ). We further demonstrate the viability of the device in a data-transmission experiment using four-state pulse-amplitude modulation (PAM4) at line rates up to 200 Gbit/s. Our first-generation devices leave vast room for further improvement and may open an attractive route towards highly efficient silicon photonic modulators that combine sub-1 mm device lengths with sub-1 V drive voltages and modulation bandwidths of more than 100 GHz.
The scaling of many photonic quantum information processing systems is ultimately limited by the flux of quantum light throughout an integrated photonic circuit. Source brightness and waveguide loss set basic limits on the on-chip photon flux. While substantial progress has been made, separately, towards ultra-low loss chip-scale photonic circuits and high brightness single-photon sources, integration of these technologies has remained elusive. Here, we report the integration of a quantum emitter single-photon source with a wafer-scale, ultra-low loss silicon nitride photonic circuit. We demonstrate triggered and pure single-photon emission into a Si3N4photonic circuit with ≈ 1 dB/m propagation loss at a wavelength of ≈ 930 nm. We also observe resonance fluorescence in the strong drive regime, showing promise towards coherent control of quantum emitters. These results are a step forward towards scaled chip-integrated photonic quantum information systems in which storing, time-demultiplexing or buffering of deterministically generated single-photons is critical.
The fabrication processes of silicon nitride (Si3N4) photonic devices used in foundries require low temperature deposition, which typically leads to high propagation losses. Here, it is shown that propagation loss as low as 0.42 dB cm−1can be achieved using foundry compatible processes by solely reducing waveguide surface roughness. By postprocessing the fabricated devices using rapid thermal anneal (RTA) and furnace anneal, propagation losses down to 0.28 dB cm−1and 0.06 dB cm−1, respectively, are achieved. These low losses are comparable to the conventional devices using high temperature, high‐stress LPCVD films. The dispersion of the devices is also tuned, and it is proved that these devices can be used for linear and nonlinear applications. Low threshold parametric oscillation, broadband frequency combs, and narrow‐linewidth laser are demonstrated. This work demonstrates the feasibility of scalable photonic systems based on foundries.