skip to main content

Title: Investigating star-formation activity towards the southern H  ii region RCW 42
ABSTRACT

The star-forming activity in the H ii region RCW 42 is investigated using multiple wavebands, from near-infrared to radio wavelengths. Located at a distance of 5.8 kpc, this southern region has a bolometric luminosity of 1.8 × 106 L⊙. The ionized gas emission has been imaged at low radio frequencies of 610 and 1280 MHz using the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope, India, and shows a large expanse of the H ii region, spanning 20 × 15 pc2. The average electron number density in the region is estimated to be ∼70 cm−3, which suggests an average ionization fraction of the cloud to be 11 % . An extended green object EGO G274.0649-01.1460 and several young stellar objects have been identified in the region using data from the 2MASS and Spitzer surveys. The dust emission from the associated molecular cloud is probed using Herschel Space Telescope, which reveals the presence of five clumps, C1-C5, in this region. Two millimetre emission cores of masses 380 and 390 M⊙ towards the radio emission peak have been identified towards C1 from the ALMA map at 1.4 mm. The clumps are investigated for their evolutionary stages based on association with various star-formation tracers, and we find that all the clumps are in active/evolved stage.

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
NSF-PAR ID:
10369946
Journal Name:
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Volume:
515
Issue:
4
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
p. 5730-5742
ISSN:
0035-8711
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. ABSTRACT

    This paper presents a multiwavelength investigation of the Galactic H ii region IRAS 17149 − 3916. Using the Giant Meterwave Radio Telescope, India, first low-frequency radio continuum observations at 610 and 1280 MHz for this region are presented. The ionized gas emission displays an interesting cometary morphology, which is likely powered by the early-type source, E4 (IRS-1). The origin of the cometary morphology is discussed under the framework of the widely accepted bow shock, champagne flow, and clumpy cloud mechanisms. The mid- and far-infrared data from Spitzer-GLIMPSE and Herschel-Hi-GAL reveal a complex network of pillars, clumps, bubble, filaments, and arcs suggesting the profound influence of massive stars on the surrounding medium. Triggered star formation at the tip of an observed pillar structure is reported. High-resolution ALMA continuum data show a string of cores detected within the identified clumps. The core masses are well explained by thermal Jeans fragmentation and support the hierarchical fragmentation scenario. Four ‘super-Jeans’ cores are identified which, at the resolution of the present data set, are suitable candidates to form high-mass stars.

  2. Abstract

    We present new ALMA observations and physical properties of a Lyman break galaxy at z = 7.15. Our target, B14-65666, has a bright ultra-violet (UV) absolute magnitude, MUV ≈ −22.4, and has been spectroscopically identified in Lyα with a small rest-frame equivalent width of ≈4 Å. A previous Hubble Space TElescope (HST) image has shown that the target is composed of two spatially separated clumps in the rest-frame UV. With ALMA, we have newly detected spatially resolved [O iii] 88 μm, [C ii] 158 μm, and their underlying dust continuum emission. In the whole system of B14-65666, the [O iii] and [C ii] lines have consistent redshifts of 7.1520 ± 0.0003, and the [O iii] luminosity, (34.4 ± 4.1) × 108 L⊙, is about three times higher than the [C ii] luminosity, (11.0 ± 1.4) × 108 L⊙. With our two continuum flux densities, the dust temperature is constrained to be Td ≈ 50–60 K under the assumption of a dust emissivity index of βd = 2.0–1.5, leading to a large total infrared luminosity of LTIR ≈ 1 × 1012 L⊙. Owing to our high spatial resolution data, we show that the [O iii] and [C ii] emission can be spatially decomposed into two clumps associated with the two rest-frame UV clumps whose spectra aremore »kinematically separated by ≈200 km s−1. We also find these two clumps have comparable UV, infrared, [O iii], and [C ii] luminosities. Based on these results, we argue that B14-65666 is a starburst galaxy induced by a major merger. The merger interpretation is also supported by the large specific star formation rate (defined as the star formation rate per unit stellar mass), sSFR $= 260^{+119}_{-57}\:$Gyr−1, inferred from our SED fitting. Probably, a strong UV radiation field caused by intense star formation contributes to its high dust temperature and the [O iii]-to-[C ii] luminosity ratio.

    « less
  3. Abstract

    We present the analysis of ∼100 pc scale compact radio continuum sources detected in 63 local (ultra)luminous infrared galaxies (U/LIRGs;LIR≥ 1011L), using FWHM ≲ 0.″1–0.″2 resolution 15 and 33 GHz observations with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array. We identify a total of 133 compact radio sources with effective radii of 8–170 pc, which are classified into four main categories—“AGN” (active galactic nuclei), “AGN/SBnuc” (AGN-starburst composite nucleus), “SBnuc” (starburst nucleus), and “SF” (star-forming clumps)—based on ancillary data sets and the literature. We find that “AGN” and “AGN/SBnuc” more frequently occur in late-stage mergers and have up to 3 dex higher 33 GHz luminosities and surface densities compared with “SBnuc” and “SF,” which may be attributed to extreme nuclear starburst and/or AGN activity in the former. Star formation rates (SFRs) and surface densities (ΣSFR) are measured for “SF” and “SBnuc” using both the total 33 GHz continuum emission (SFR ∼ 0.14–13Myr−1, ΣSFR∼ 13–1600Myr−1kpc−2) and the thermal free–free emission from Hiiregions (median SFRth∼ 0.4Myr−1,ΣSFRth44Myr−1kpc−2). These values are 1–2 dex higher than those measured for similar-sized clumps in nearby normal (non-U/LIRGs). The latter also have a much flatter median 15–33 GHz spectral index (∼−0.08) compared withmore »“SBnuc” and “SF” (∼−0.46), which may reflect higher nonthermal contribution from supernovae and/or interstellar medium densities in local U/LIRGs that directly result from and/or lead to their extreme star-forming activities on 100 pc scales.

    « less
  4. Abstract

    We have observed the compact H ii region complex nearest to the dynamical center of the Galaxy, G−0.02−0.07, using ALMA in the H42α recombination line, CS J = 2–1, H13CO+J = 1–0, and SiO v = 0, J = 2–1 emission lines, and the 86 GHz continuum emission. The H ii regions HII-A to HII-C in the cluster are clearly resolved into a shell-like feature with a bright half and a dark half in the recombination line and continuum emission. The analysis of the absorption features in the molecular emission lines show that H ii-A, B, and C are located on the near side of the “Galactic center 50 km s−1 molecular cloud” (50MC), but HII-D is located on the far side of it. The electron temperatures and densities ranges are Te = 5150–5920 K and ne = 950–2340 cm−3, respectively. The electron temperatures in the bright half are slightly lower than those in the dark half, while the electron densities in the bright half are slightly higher than those in the dark half. The H ii regions are embedded in the ambient molecular gas. There are some molecular gas components compressed by a C-type shock wave around the H ii regions. From the line width of the H42αmore »recombination line, the expansion velocities of HII-A, HII-B, HII-C, and HII-D are estimated to be Vexp = 16.7, 11.6, 11.1, and 12.1 km s−1, respectively. The expansion timescales of HII-A, HII-B, HII-C, and HII-D are estimated to be tage ≃ 1.4 × 104, 1.7 × 104, 2.0 × 104, and 0.7 × 104 yr, respectively. The spectral types of the central stars from HII-A to HII-D are estimated to be O8V, O9.5V, O9V, and B0V, respectively. These derived spectral types are roughly consistent with the previous radio estimation. The positional relation among the H ii regions, the SiO molecule enhancement area, and Class-I maser spots suggest that a shock wave caused by a cloud–cloud collision propagated along the line from HII-C to HII-A in the 50MC. The shock wave would have triggered the massive star formation.

    « less
  5. Context. The role of large-scale magnetic fields in the evolution of star-forming regions remains elusive. Its investigation requires the observational characterization of well-constrained molecular clouds. The Monoceros OB 1 molecular cloud is a large complex containing several structures that have been shown to be engaged in an active interaction and to have a rich star formation history. However, the magnetic fields in this region have only been studied on small scales. Aims. We study the large-scale magnetic field structure and its interplay with the gas dynamics in the Monoceros OB 1 east molecular cloud. Methods. We combined observations of dust polarized emission from the Planck telescope and CO molecular line emission observations from the Taeduk Radio Astronomy Observatory 14-metre telescope. We calculated the strength of the plane-of-sky magnetic field using a modified Chandrasekhar-Fermi method and estimated the mass-over-flux ratios in different regions of the cloud. We used the comparison of the velocity and intensity gradients of the molecular line observations with the polarimetric observations to trace dynamically active regions. Results. The molecular complex shows an ordered large-scale plane-of-sky magnetic field structure. In the northern part, it is mostly orientated along the filamentary structures, while the southern part shows at leastmore »two regions with distinct magnetic field orientations. Our analysis reveals a shock region in the northern part right between two filamentary clouds that, in previous studies, were suggested to be involved in a collision. The magnetic properties of the north-main and north-eastern filaments suggest that these filaments once formed a single one, and that the magnetic field evolved together with the material and did not undergo major changes during the evolution of the cloud. In the southern part, we find that either the magnetic field guides the accretion of interstellar matter towards the cloud or it is dragged by the matter falling towards the main cloud. Conclusions. The large-scale magnetic field in the Monoceros OB 1 east molecular cloud is tightly connected to the global structure of the complex. In the northern part, it seems to serve a dynamically important role by possibly providing support against gravity in the direction perpendicular to the field and to the filament. In the southern part, it is probably the most influential factor governing the morphological structure by guiding possible gas inflow. A study of the whole Monoceros OB 1 molecular complex at large scales is necessary to form a global picture of the formation and evolution of the Monoceros OB 1 east cloud and the role of the magnetic field in this process.« less