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Title: Adaptive and nonadaptive causes of heterogeneity in genetic differentiation across the Mimulus guttatus genome

Genetic diversity becomes structured among populations over time due to genetic drift and divergent selection. Although population structure is often treated as a uniform underlying factor, recent resequencing studies of wild populations have demonstrated that diversity in many regions of the genome may be structured quite dissimilar to the genome‐wide pattern. Here, we explored the adaptive and nonadaptive causes of such genomic heterogeneity using population‐level, whole genome resequencing data obtained from annualMimulus guttatusindividuals collected across a rugged environment landscape. We found substantial variation in how genetic differentiation is structured both within and between chromosomes, although, in contrast to other studies, known inversion polymorphisms appear to serve only minor roles in this heterogeneity. In addition, much of the genome can be clustered into eight among‐population genetic differentiation patterns, but only two of these clusters are particularly consistent with patterns of isolation by distance. By performing genotype‐environment association analysis, we also identified genomic intervals where local adaptation to specific climate factors has accentuated genetic differentiation among populations, and candidate genes in these windows indicate climate adaptation may proceed through changes affecting specialized metabolism, drought resistance, and development. Finally, by integrating our findings with previous studies, we show that multiple aspects of plant reproductive biology may be common targets of balancing selection and that variants historically involved in climate adaptation among populations have probably also fuelled rapid adaptation to microgeographic environmental variation within sites.

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Author(s) / Creator(s):
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Date Published:
Journal Name:
Molecular Ecology
Page Range / eLocation ID:
p. 6486-6507
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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