skip to main content

Title: Tidal Distortions in NGC1052-DF2 and NGC1052-DF4: Independent Evidence for a Lack of Dark Matter

Two ultra-diffuse galaxies in the same group, NGC1052-DF2 and NGC1052-DF4, have been found to have little or no dark matter and to host unusually luminous globular cluster populations. Such low-mass diffuse objects in a group environment are easily disrupted and are expected to show evidence of tidal distortions. In this work, we present deep new imaging of the NGC1052 group, obtained with the Dragonfly Telephoto Array, to test this hypothesis. We find that both galaxies show strong position-angle twists and are significantly more elongated at their outskirts than in their interiors. The group’s central massive elliptical NGC1052 is the most likely source of these tidal disturbances. The observed distortions imply that the galaxies have a low total mass or are very close to NGC1052. Considering constraints on the galaxies’ relative distances, we infer that the dark matter halo masses of these galaxies cannot be much greater than their stellar masses. Calculating pericenters from the distortions, we find that the galaxies are on highly elliptical orbits, with a ratio of pericenter to present-day radiusRperi/R0∼ 0.1 if the galaxies are dark matter–free andRperi/R0∼ 0.01 if they have a normal dark halo. Our findings provide strong evidence, independent of kinematic constraints, that more » both galaxies are dark matter–deficient. Furthermore, the similarity of the tidal features in NGC1052-DF2 and NGC1052-DF4 strongly suggests that they arose at comparable distances from NGC1052. In Appendix A, we describesbcontrast, a robust method for determining the surface brightness limits of images.

« less
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Journal Name:
The Astrophysical Journal
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
Article No. 160
DOI PREFIX: 10.3847
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. ABSTRACT Core formation and runaway core collapse in models with self-interacting dark matter (SIDM) significantly alter the central density profiles of collapsed haloes. Using a forward modelling inference framework with simulated data-sets, we demonstrate that flux ratios in quadruple image strong gravitational lenses can detect the unique structural properties of SIDM haloes, and statistically constrain the amplitude and velocity dependence of the interaction cross-section in haloes with masses between 106 and 1010 M⊙. Measurements on these scales probe self-interactions at velocities below $30 \ \rm {km} \ \rm {s^{-1}}$, a relatively unexplored regime of parameter space, complimenting constraints at higher velocities from galaxies and clusters. We cast constraints on the amplitude and velocity dependence of the interaction cross-section in terms of σ20, the cross-section amplitude at $20 \ \rm {km} \ \rm {s^{-1}}$. With 50 lenses, a sample size available in the near future, and flux ratios measured from spatially compact mid-IR emission around the background quasar, we forecast $\sigma _{20} \lt 11\rm {\small {--}}23 \ \rm {cm^2} \rm {g^{-1}}$ at $95 {{\ \rm per\ cent}}$ CI, depending on the amplitude of the subhalo mass function, and assuming cold dark matter (CDM). Alternatively, if $\sigma _{20} = 19.2 \ \rmmore »{cm^2}\rm {g^{-1}}$ we can rule out CDM with a likelihood ratio of 20:1, assuming an amplitude of the subhalo mass function that results from doubly efficient tidal disruption in the Milky Way relative to massive elliptical galaxies. These results demonstrate that strong lensing of compact, unresolved sources can constrain SIDM structure on sub-galactic scales across cosmological distances, and the evolution of SIDM density profiles over several Gyr of cosmic time.« less
  2. Abstract

    The thermal Sunyaev–Zel’dovich (tSZ) effect is a powerful tool with the potential for constraining directly the properties of the hot gas that dominates dark matter halos because it measures pressure and thus thermal energy density. Studying this hot component of the circumgalactic medium (CGM) is important because it is strongly impacted by star formation and active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity in galaxies, participating in the feedback loop that regulates star and black hole mass growth in galaxies. We study the tSZ effect across a wide halo-mass range using three cosmological hydrodynamical simulations: Illustris-TNG, EAGLE, and FIRE-2. Specifically, we present the scaling relation between the tSZ signal and halo mass and the (mass-weighted) radial profiles of gas density, temperature, and pressure for all three simulations. The analysis includes comparisons to Planck tSZ observations and to the thermal pressure profile inferred from the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) measurements. We compare these tSZ data to simulations to interpret the measurements in terms of feedback and accretion processes in the CGM. We also identify as-yet unobserved potential signatures of these processes that may be visible in future measurements, which will have the capability of measuring tSZ signals to even lower masses. We alsomore »perform internal comparisons between runs with different physical assumptions. We conclude (1) there is strong evidence for the impact of feedback atR500, but that this impact decreases by 5R500, and (2) the thermodynamic profiles of the CGM are highly dependent on the implemented model, such as cosmic-ray or AGN feedback prescriptions.

    « less
  3. Abstract

    While it is generally believed that supermassive black holes (SMBHs) lie in most galaxies with bulges, few SMBHs have been confirmed in bulgeless galaxies. Identifying such a population could provide important insights to the BH seed population and secular BH growth. To this end, we obtained near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopic observations of a sample of low-redshift bulgeless galaxies with mid-infrared colors suggestive of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We find additional evidence of AGN activity (such as coronal lines and broad permitted lines) in 69% (9/13) of the sample, demonstrating that mid-infrared selection is a powerful tool to detect AGNs. More than half of the galaxies with confirmed AGN activity show fast outflows in [Oiii] in the optical and/or [Sivi] in the NIR, with the latter generally having much faster velocities that are also correlated to their spatial extent. We are also able to obtain virial BH masses for some targets and find they fall within the scatter of other late-type galaxies in theMBHMstellarrelation. The fact that they lack a significant bulge component indicates that secular processes, likely independent of major mergers, grew these BHs to supermassive sizes. Finally, we analyze the rotational gas kinematics and find two notable exceptions: twomore »AGN hosts with outflows that appear to be rotating faster than expected. There is an indication that these two galaxies have stellar masses significantly lower than expected from their dark matter halo masses. This, combined with the observed AGN activity and strong gas outflows, may be evidence of the effects of AGN feedback.

    « less
  4. Abstract

    We use a recent census of the Milky Way (MW) satellite galaxy population to constrain the lifetime of particle dark matter (DM). We consider two-body decaying dark matter (DDM) in which a heavy DM particle decays with lifetimeτcomparable to the age of the universe to a lighter DM particle (with mass splittingϵ) and to a dark radiation species. These decays impart a characteristic “kick velocity,”Vkick=ϵc, on the DM daughter particles, significantly depleting the DM content of low-mass subhalos and making them more susceptible to tidal disruption. We fit the suppression of the present-day DDM subhalo mass function (SHMF) as a function ofτandVkickusing a suite of high-resolution zoom-in simulations of MW-mass halos, and we validate this model on new DDM simulations of systems specifically chosen to resemble the MW. We implement our DDM SHMF predictions in a forward model that incorporates inhomogeneities in the spatial distribution and detectability of MW satellites and uncertainties in the mapping between galaxies and DM halos, the properties of the MW system, and the disruption of subhalos by the MW disk using an empirical model for the galaxy–halo connection. By comparing to the observed MW satellite population, we conservatively exclude DDM models withτ< 18 Gyrmore »(29 Gyr) forVkick= 20 kms−1(40 kms−1) at 95% confidence. These constraints are among the most stringent and robust small-scale structure limits on the DM particle lifetime and strongly disfavor DDM models that have been proposed to alleviate the Hubble andS8tensions.

    « less
  5. Abstract

    We analyze circular velocity profiles of seven ultradiffuse galaxies (UDGs) that are isolated and gas-rich. Assuming that the dark matter halos of these UDGs have a Navarro–Frenk–White (NFW) density profile or a Read density profile (which allows for constant-density cores), the inferred halo concentrations are systematically lower than the cosmological median, even as low as −0.6 dex (about 5σaway) in some cases. Alternatively, similar fits can be obtained with a density profile that scales roughly as 1/r2for radii larger than a few kiloparsecs. Both solutions require the radius where the halo circular velocity peaks (Rmax) to be much larger than the median expectation. Surprisingly, we find an overabundance of such large-Rmaxhalos in the IllustrisTNG dark-matter-only simulations compared to the Gaussian expectation. These halos form late and have higher spins compared to median halos of similar masses. The inner densities of the most extreme among these late-forming halos are higher than their NFW counterparts, leading to a ∼1/r2density profile. However, the two well-resolved UDGs in our sample strongly prefer lower dark matter densities in the center than the simulated ones. Comparing to IllustrisTNG hydrodynamical simulations, we also find a tension in getting both lowmore »enough circular velocities and high enough halo mass to accommodate the measurements. Our results indicate that the gas-rich UDGs present a significant challenge for galaxy formation models.

    « less