skip to main content


Title: GJ 3929: High-precision Photometric and Doppler Characterization of an Exo-Venus and Its Hot, Mini-Neptune-mass Companion
Abstract

We detail the follow-up and characterization of a transiting exo-Venus identified by TESS, GJ 3929b (TOI-2013b), and its nontransiting companion planet, GJ 3929c (TOI-2013c). GJ 3929b is an Earth-sized exoplanet in its star’s Venus zone (Pb= 2.616272 ± 0.000005 days; Sb=17.30.7+0.8S) orbiting a nearby M dwarf. GJ 3929c is most likely a nontransiting sub-Neptune. Using the new, ultraprecise NEID spectrometer on the WIYN 3.5 m Telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory, we are able to modify the mass constraints of planet b reported in previous works and consequently improve the significance of the mass measurement to almost 4σconfidence (Mb= 1.75 ± 0.45M). We further adjust the orbital period of planet c from its alias at 14.30 ± 0.03 days to the likely true period of 15.04 ± 0.03 days, and we adjust its minimum mass tomsini= 5.71 ± 0.92M. Using the diffuser-assisted ARCTIC imager on the ARC 3.5 m telescope at Apache Point Observatory, in addition to publicly available TESS and LCOGT photometry, we are able to constrain the radius of planet b toRp= 1.09 ± 0.04R. GJ 3929b is a top candidate for transmission spectroscopy in its size regime (TSM = 14 ± 4), and future atmospheric studies of GJ 3929b stand to shed light on the nature of small planets orbiting M dwarfs.

 
more » « less
Award ID(s):
2108569 2108493 1910954 2108801
NSF-PAR ID:
10370390
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; more » ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; « less
Publisher / Repository:
DOI PREFIX: 10.3847
Date Published:
Journal Name:
The Astrophysical Journal
Volume:
936
Issue:
1
ISSN:
0004-637X
Format(s):
Medium: X Size: Article No. 55
Size(s):
["Article No. 55"]
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Abstract

    We present and confirm TOI-1751 b, a transiting sub-Neptune orbiting a slightly evolved, solar-type, metal-poor star (Teff= 5996 ± 110 K,log(g)=4.2±0.1,V= 9.3 mag, [Fe/H] = −0.40 ± 0.06 dex) every 37.47 days. We use TESS photometry to measure a planet radius of2.770.07+0.15R. We also use both Keck/HIRES and APF/Levy radial velocities (RV) to derive a planet mass of14.53.14+3.15M, and thus a planet density of 3.6 ± 0.9 g cm−3. There is also a long-period (∼400 days) signal that is observed in only the Keck/HIRES data. We conclude that this long-period signal is not planetary in nature and is likely due to the window function of the Keck/HIRES observations. This highlights the role of complementary observations from multiple observatories to identify and exclude aliases in RV data. Finally, we investigate the potential compositions of this planet, including rocky and water-rich solutions, as well as theoretical irradiated ocean models. TOI-1751 b is a warm sub-Neptune with an equilibrium temperature of ∼820 K. As TOI-1751 is a metal-poor star, TOI-1751 b may have formed in a water-enriched formation environment. We thus favor a volatile-rich interior composition for this planet.

     
    more » « less
  2. Abstract

    The Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) mission detected a companion orbiting TIC 71268730, categorized it as a planet candidate, and designated the system TOI-5375. Our follow-up analysis using radial-velocity data from the Habitable-zone Planet Finder, photometric data from Red Buttes Observatory, and speckle imaging with NN-EXPLORE Exoplanet Stellar Speckle Imager determined that the companion is a very low mass star near the hydrogen-burning mass limit with a mass of 0.080 ± 0.002M(83.81 ± 2.10MJ), a radius of0.11140.0050+0.0048R(1.08410.04870.0467RJ), and brightness temperature of 2600 ± 70 K. This object orbits with a period of 1.721553 ± 0.000001 days around an early M dwarf star (0.62 ± 0.016M). TESS photometry shows regular variations in the host star’s TESS light curve, which we interpreted as an activity-induced variation of ∼2%, and used this variability to measure the host star’s stellar rotation period of1.97160.0083+0.0080days. The TOI-5375 system provides tight constraints on stellar models of low-mass stars at the hydrogen-burning limit and adds to the population in this important region.

     
    more » « less
  3. Abstract

    The nearby LHS 1678 (TOI-696) system contains two confirmed planets and a wide-orbit, likely brown-dwarf companion, which orbit an M2 dwarf with a unique evolutionary history. The host star occupies a narrow “gap” in the Hertzsprung–Russell diagram lower main sequence, associated with the M dwarf fully convective boundary and long-term luminosity fluctuations. This system is one of only about a dozen M dwarf multiplanet systems to date that hosts an ultra-short-period planet (USP). Here we validate and characterize a third planet in the LHS 1678 system using TESS Cycle 1 and 3 data and a new ensemble of ground-based light curves. LHS 1678 d is a 0.98 ± 0.07Rplanet in a 4.97 day orbit, with an insolation flux of9.10.8+0.9S. These properties place it near 4:3 mean motion resonance with LHS 1678 c and in company with LHS 1678 c in the Venus zone. LHS 1678 c and d are also twins in size and predicted mass, making them a powerful duo for comparative exoplanet studies. LHS 1678 d joins its siblings as another compelling candidate for atmospheric measurements with the JWST and mass measurements using high-precision radial velocity techniques. Additionally, USP LHS 1678 b breaks the “peas-in-a-pod” trend in this system although additional planets could fill in the “pod” beyond its orbit. LHS 1678's unique combination of system properties and their relative rarity among the ubiquity of compact multiplanet systems around M dwarfs makes the system a valuable benchmark for testing theories of planet formation and evolution.

     
    more » « less
  4. Abstract

    We present a radial velocity (RV) analysis of TOI-1136, a bright Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) system with six confirmed transiting planets, and a seventh single-transiting planet candidate. All planets in the system are amenable to transmission spectroscopy, making TOI-1136 one of the best targets for intra-system comparison of exoplanet atmospheres. TOI-1136 is young (∼700 Myr), and the system exhibits transit timing variations (TTVs). The youth of the system contributes to high stellar variability on the order of 50 m s−1, much larger than the likely RV amplitude of any of the transiting exoplanets. Utilizing 359 High Resolution Echelle Spectrometer and Automated Planet Finder RVs collected as part of the TESS-Keck Survey, and 51 High-Accuracy Radial velocity Planetary Searcher North RVs, we experiment with a joint TTV-RV fit. With seven possible transiting planets, TTVs, more than 400 RVs, and a stellar activity model, we posit that we may be presenting the most complex mass recovery of an exoplanet system in the literature to date. By combining TTVs and RVs, we minimized Gaussian process overfitting and retrieved new masses for this system: (mb−g=3.500.7+0.8,6.321.3+1.1,8.351.6+1.8,6.071.01+1.09,9.73.7+3.9,5.63.2+4.1M). We are unable to significantly detect the mass of the seventh planet candidate in the RVs, but we are able to loosely constrain a possible orbital period near 80 days. Future TESS observations might confirm the existence of a seventh planet in the system, better constrain the masses and orbital properties of the known exoplanets, and generally shine light on this scientifically interesting system.

     
    more » « less
  5. Abstract

    We report the discovery and confirmation of the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) single-transit, warm and dense sub-Saturn, TIC 139270665 b. This planet is unusually dense for its size: with a bulk density of 2.13 g cm−3(0.645RJ, 0.463MJ), it is the densest warm sub-Saturn of the TESS family. It orbits a metal-rich G2 star. We also found evidence of a second planet, TIC 139270665 c, with a longer period of1010220+780days and minimum massMPsiniof4.890.37+0.66MJ. First clues of TIC 139270665 b’s existence were found by citizen scientists inspecting TESS photometric data from sector 47 in 2022 January. Radial velocity measurements from the Automated Planet Finder combined with TESS photometry and spectral energy distributions viaEXOFASTv2system modeling suggested a23.6240.031+0.030day orbital period for TIC 139270665 b and also showed evidence for the second planet. Based on this estimated period, we mobilized the Unistellar citizen science network for photometric follow-up, capitalizing on their global distribution to capture a second transit of TIC 139270665 b. This citizen science effort also served as a test bed for an education initiative that integrates young students into modern astrophysics data collection. The Unistellar photometry did not definitively detect a second transit, but did enable us to further constrain the planet’s period. As a transiting, warm, and dense sub-Saturn, TIC 139270665 b represents an interesting laboratory for further study to enhance our models of planetary formation and evolution.

     
    more » « less