skip to main content

Attention:

The NSF Public Access Repository (NSF-PAR) system and access will be unavailable from 5:00 PM ET until 11:00 PM ET on Friday, June 21 due to maintenance. We apologize for the inconvenience.


Title: PNV J00444033+4113068: Early superhumps with 0.7 mag amplitude and non-red color
Abstract

In the first days of WZ Sge-type dwarf nova (DN) outbursts, the 2 : 1 resonance induces a spiral arm structure in the accretion disk, which is observed as early superhumps in optical light curves. We reports on our optical observations of an eclipsing WZ Sge-type DN PNV J00444033+4113068 during its 2021 superoutburst using the 3.8 m Seimei telescope and through the Variable Star Network collaboration. The eclipse analysis showed that its orbital period was 0.055425534(1) d. Our observations confirmed early superhumps with an amplitude of 0.7 mag, the largest amplitude among known WZ Sge-type DNe. More interestingly, its early superhumps became the reddest around their secondary minimum, whereas other WZ Sge-type DNe show the reddest color around the early superhump maximum. The spectrum around the peak of the outburst showed two double-peaked emission lines of He ii 4686 Å and Hα with a peak separation of ≥700 km s−1, supporting a very high-inclination system. With the early superhump mapping, the unique profile and color of the early superhump are successfully reproduced by an accretion disk with a vertically extended double arm structure. Therefore, a large amplitude and a unique color behavior of the early superhumps in PNV J00444033+4113068 can be explained by the 2 : 1 resonance model along with other WZ Sge-type DNe.

 
more » « less
NSF-PAR ID:
10371301
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Publisher / Repository:
Oxford University Press
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan
Volume:
74
Issue:
6
ISSN:
0004-6264
Format(s):
Medium: X Size: p. 1287-1294
Size(s):
["p. 1287-1294"]
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Abstract

    Superoutbursts in WZ Sge-type dwarf novae (DNe) are characterized by both early superhumps and ordinary superhumps originating from the 2 : 1 and 3 : 1 resonances, respectively. However, some WZ Sge-type DNe show a superoutburst lacking early superhumps; it is not well established how these differ from superoutbursts with an early superhump phase. We report time-resolved photometric observations of the WZ Sge-type DN V627 Peg during its 2021 superoutburst. The detection of ordinary superhumps before the superoutburst peak highlights that this 2021 superoutburst of V627 Peg, like that in 2014, did not feature an early superhump phase. The duration of stage B superhumps was slightly longer in the 2010 superoutburst accompanied by early superhumps than that in the 2014 and 2021 superoutbursts, which lacked early superhumps. This result suggests that an accretion disk experiencing the 2 : 1 resonance may have a larger mass at the inner part of the disk and hence needs more time for the inner disk to become eccentric. The presence of a precursor outburst in the 2021 superoutburst suggests that the maximum disk radius should be smaller than that of the 2014 superoutburst, even though the duration of quiescence was longer than that before the 2021 superoutburst. This could be accomplished if the 2021 superoutburst was triggered as an inside-out outburst or if the mass transfer rate in quiescence changes by a factor of two, suggesting that the outburst mechanism and quiescence state of WZ Sge-type DNe may have more variety than ever thought.

     
    more » « less
  2. null (Ed.)
    Abstract We report on photometric and spectroscopic observations and analysis of the 2019 superoutburst of TCP J21040470+4631129. This object showed a 9 mag superoutburst with early superhumps and ordinary superhumps, which are the features of WZ Sge-type dwarf novae. Five rebrightenings were observed after the main superoutburst. The spectra during the post-superoutburst stage showed Balmer, He i, and possible sodium doublet features. The mass ratio is derived as 0.0880(9) from the period of the superhump. During the third and fifth rebrightenings, growing superhumps and superoutbursts were observed, which have never been detected during a rebrightening phase among WZ Sge-type dwarf novae with multiple rebrightenings. To induce a superoutburst during the brightening phase, the accretion disk needs to have expanded beyond the 3 : 1 resonance radius of the system again after the main superoutburst. These peculiar phenomena can be explained by the enhanced viscosity and large radius of the accretion disk suggested by the higher luminosity and the presence of late-stage superhumps during the post-superoutburst stage, plus by more mass supply from the cool mass reservoir and/or from the secondary because of the enhanced mass transfer than those of other WZ Sge-type dwarf novae. 
    more » « less
  3. Abstract Continuing the project described by Kato et al. (2009, PASJ, 61, S395), we collected times of superhump maxima for 102 SU UMa-type dwarf novae observed mainly during the 2017 season, and characterized these objects. WZ Sge-type stars identified in this study are PT And, ASASSN-17ei, ASASSN-17el, ASASSN-17es, ASASSN-17fn, ASASSN-17fz, ASASSN-17hw, ASASSN-17kd, ASASSN-17la, PNV J20205397$+$2508145, and TCP J00332502$-$3518565. We obtained new mass ratios for seven objects using growing superhumps (stage A). ASASSN-17gf is an EI Psc-type object below the period minimum. CRTS J080941.3$+$171528 and DDE 51 are objects in the period gap, and both showed a long-lasting phase of stage A superhumps. We also summarize the recent advances in understanding of SU UMa-type and WZ Sge-type dwarf novae. 
    more » « less
  4. Aims. The modelling of spectroscopic observations of tidal disruption events (TDEs) to date suggests that the newly formed accretion disks are mostly quasi-circular. In this work we study the transient event AT 2020zso, hosted by an active galactic nucleus (AGN; as inferred from narrow emission line diagnostics), with the aim of characterising the properties of its newly formed accretion flow. Methods. We classify AT 2020zso as a TDE based on the blackbody evolution inferred from UV/optical photometric observations and spectral line content and evolution. We identify transient, double-peaked Bowen (N  III ), He  I , He  II, and H α emission lines. We model medium-resolution optical spectroscopy of the He  II (after careful de-blending of the N  III contribution) and H α lines during the rise, peak, and early decline of the light curve using relativistic, elliptical accretion disk models. Results. We find that the spectral evolution before the peak can be explained by optical depth effects consistent with an outflowing, optically thick Eddington envelope. Around the peak, the envelope reaches its maximum extent (approximately 10 15 cm, or ∼3000–6000 gravitational radii for an inferred black hole mass of 5−10 × 10 5 M ⊙ ) and becomes optically thin. The H α and He  II emission lines at and after the peak can be reproduced with a highly inclined ( i  = 85 ± 5 degrees), highly elliptical ( e  = 0.97 ± 0.01), and relatively compact ( R in = several 100 R g and R out = several 1000 R g ) accretion disk. Conclusions. Overall, the line profiles suggest a highly elliptical geometry for the new accretion flow, consistent with theoretical expectations of newly formed TDE disks. We quantitatively confirm, for the first time, the high inclination nature of a Bowen (and X-ray dim) TDE, consistent with the unification picture of TDEs, where the inclination largely determines the observational appearance. Rapid line profile variations rule out the binary supermassive black hole hypothesis as the origin of the eccentricity; these results thus provide a direct link between a TDE in an AGN and the eccentric accretion disk. We illustrate for the first time how optical spectroscopy can be used to constrain the black hole spin, through (the lack of) disk precession signatures (changes in inferred inclination). We constrain the disk alignment timescale to > 15 days in AT2020zso, which rules out high black hole spin values ( a  < 0.8) for M BH  ∼ 10 6 M ⊙ and disk viscosity α  ≳ 0.1. 
    more » « less
  5. Abstract We present a detailed study of the 2019 outburst of the cataclysmic variable V1047 Cen, which hosted a classical nova eruption in 2005. The peculiar outburst occurred 14 yr after the classical nova event and lasted for more than 400 days, reaching an amplitude of around 6 magnitudes in the optical. Early spectral follow-up revealed what could be a dwarf nova (accretion disk instability) outburst. However, the outburst duration, high-velocity (>2000 km s −1 ) features in the optical line profiles, luminous optical emission, and presence of prominent long-lasting radio emission together suggest a phenomenon more exotic and energetic than a dwarf nova outburst. The outburst amplitude, radiated energy, and spectral evolution are also not consistent with a classical nova eruption. There are similarities between V1047 Cen’s 2019 outburst and those of classical symbiotic stars, but pre-2005 images of the field of V1047 Cen indicate that the system likely hosts a dwarf companion, implying a typical cataclysmic variable system. Based on our multiwavelength observations, we suggest that the outburst may have started with a brightening of the disk due to enhanced mass transfer or disk instability, possibly leading to enhanced nuclear shell burning on the white dwarf, which was already experiencing some level of quasi-steady shell burning. This eventually led to the generation of a wind and/or bipolar, collimated outflows. The 2019 outburst of V1047 Cen appears to be unique, and nothing similar has been observed in a typical cataclysmic variable system before, hinting at a potentially new astrophysical phenomenon. 
    more » « less