skip to main content

Title: Photometric redshifts for quasars from WISE-PS1-STRM

Three-dimensional wide-field galaxy surveys are fundamental for cosmological studies. For higher redshifts (z ≳ 1.0), where galaxies are too faint, quasars still trace the large-scale structure of the Universe. Since available telescope time limits spectroscopic surveys, photometric methods are efficient for estimating redshifts for many quasars. Recently, machine-learning methods are increasingly successful for quasar photometric redshifts, however, they hinge on the distribution of the training set. Therefore, a rigorous estimation of reliability is critical. We extracted optical and infrared photometric data from the cross-matched catalogue of the WISE All-Sky and PS1 3$\pi$ DR2 sky surveys. We trained an XGBoost regressor and an artificial neural network on the relation between colour indices and spectroscopic redshift. We approximated the effective training set coverage with the K-nearest neighbours algorithm. We estimated reliable photometric redshifts of 2 562 878 quasars which overlap with the training set in feature space. We validated the derived redshifts with an independent, clustering-based redshift estimation technique. The final catalogue is publicly available.

; ; ;
Publication Date:
Journal Name:
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
p. 2662-2670
Oxford University Press
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Abstract The accurate estimation of photometric redshifts is crucial to many upcoming galaxy surveys, for example, the Vera C. Rubin Observatory Legacy Survey of Space and Time (LSST). Almost all Rubin extragalactic and cosmological science requires accurate and precise calculation of photometric redshifts; many diverse approaches to this problem are currently in the process of being developed, validated, and tested. In this work, we use the photometric redshift code GPz to examine two realistically complex training set imperfections scenarios for machine learning based photometric redshift calculation: (i) where the spectroscopic training set has a very different distribution in color–magnitude space to the test set, and (ii) where the effect of emission line confusion causes a fraction of the training spectroscopic sample to not have the true redshift. By evaluating the sensitivity of GPz to a range of increasingly severe imperfections, with a range of metrics (both of photo- z point estimates as well as posterior probability distribution functions, PDFs), we quantify the degree to which predictions get worse with higher degrees of degradation. In particular, we find that there is a substantial drop-off in photo- z quality when line-confusion goes above ∼1%, and sample incompleteness below a redshift of 1.5,more »for an experimental setup using data from the Buzzard Flock synthetic sky catalogs.« less

    Studies of cosmology, galaxy evolution, and astronomical transients with current and next-generation wide-field imaging surveys like the Rubin Observatory Legacy Survey of Space and Time are all critically dependent on estimates of photometric redshifts. Capsule networks are a new type of neural network architecture that is better suited for identifying morphological features of the input images than traditional convolutional neural networks. We use a deep capsule network trained on ugriz images, spectroscopic redshifts, and Galaxy Zoo spiral/elliptical classifications of ∼400 000 Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxies to do photometric redshift estimation. We achieve a photometric redshift prediction accuracy and a fraction of catastrophic outliers that are comparable to or better than current methods for SDSS main galaxy sample-like data sets (r ≤ 17.8 and zspec ≤ 0.4) while requiring less data and fewer trainable parameters. Furthermore, the decision-making of our capsule network is much more easily interpretable as capsules act as a low-dimensional encoding of the image. When the capsules are projected on a two-dimensional manifold, they form a single redshift sequence with the fraction of spirals in a region exhibiting a gradient roughly perpendicular to the redshift sequence. We perturb encodings of real galaxy images in this low-dimensional spacemore »to create synthetic galaxy images that demonstrate the image properties (e.g. size, orientation, and surface brightness) encoded by each dimension. We also measure correlations between galaxy properties (e.g. magnitudes, colours, and stellar mass) and each capsule dimension. We publicly release our code, estimated redshifts, and additional catalogues at

    « less
  3. ABSTRACT Cosmological analyses of galaxy surveys rely on knowledge of the redshift distribution of their galaxy sample. This is usually derived from a spectroscopic and/or many-band photometric calibrator survey of a small patch of sky. The uncertainties in the redshift distribution of the calibrator sample include a contribution from shot noise, or Poisson sampling errors, but, given the small volume they probe, they are dominated by sample variance introduced by large-scale structures. Redshift uncertainties have been shown to constitute one of the leading contributions to systematic uncertainties in cosmological inferences from weak lensing and galaxy clustering, and hence they must be propagated through the analyses. In this work, we study the effects of sample variance on small-area redshift surveys, from theory to simulations to the COSMOS2015 data set. We present a three-step Dirichlet method of resampling a given survey-based redshift calibration distribution to enable the propagation of both shot noise and sample variance uncertainties. The method can accommodate different levels of prior confidence on different redshift sources. This method can be applied to any calibration sample with known redshifts and phenotypes (i.e. cells in a self-organizing map, or some other way of discretizing photometric space), and provides a simple way ofmore »propagating prior redshift uncertainties into cosmological analyses. As a worked example, we apply the full scheme to the COSMOS2015 data set, for which we also present a new, principled SOM algorithm designed to handle noisy photometric data. We make available a catalogue of the resulting resamplings of the COSMOS2015 galaxies.« less
  4. ABSTRACT With the launch of eROSITA (extended Roentgen Survey with an Imaging Telescope Array), successfully occurred on 2019 July 13, we are facing the challenge of computing reliable photometric redshifts for 3 million of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) over the entire sky, having available only patchy and inhomogeneous ancillary data. While we have a good understanding of the photo-z quality obtainable for AGN using spectral energy distribution (SED)-fitting technique, we tested the capability of machine learning (ML), usually reliable in computing photo-z for QSO in wide and shallow areas with rich spectroscopic samples. Using MLPQNA as example of ML, we computed photo-z for the X-ray-selected sources in Stripe 82X, using the publicly available photometric and spectroscopic catalogues. Stripe 82X is at least as deep as eROSITA will be and wide enough to include also rare and bright AGNs. In addition, the availability of ancillary data mimics what can be available in the whole sky. We found that when optical, and near- and mid-infrared data are available, ML and SED fitting perform comparably well in terms of overall accuracy, realistic redshift probability density functions, and fraction of outliers, although they are not the same for the two methods. The results couldmore »further improve if the photometry available is accurate and including morphological information. Assuming that we can gather sufficient spectroscopy to build a representative training sample, with the current photometry coverage we can obtain reliable photo-z for a large fraction of sources in the Southern hemisphere well before the spectroscopic follow-up, thus timely enabling the eROSITA science return. The photo-z catalogue is released here.« less

    Upcoming deep imaging surveys such as the Vera C. Rubin Observatory Legacy Survey of Space and Time will be confronted with challenges that come with increased depth. One of the leading systematic errors in deep surveys is the blending of objects due to higher surface density in the more crowded images; a considerable fraction of the galaxies which we hope to use for cosmology analyses will overlap each other on the observed sky. In order to investigate these challenges, we emulate blending in a mock catalogue consisting of galaxies at a depth equivalent to 1.3 yr of the full 10-yr Rubin Observatory that includes effects due to weak lensing, ground-based seeing, and the uncertainties due to extraction of catalogues from imaging data. The emulated catalogue indicates that approximately 12 per cent of the observed galaxies are ‘unrecognized’ blends that contain two or more objects but are detected as one. Using the positions and shears of half a billion distant galaxies, we compute shear–shear correlation functions after selecting tomographic samples in terms of both spectroscopic and photometric redshift bins. We examine the sensitivity of the cosmological parameter estimation to unrecognized blending employing both jackknife and analytical Gaussian covariance estimators. An ∼0.025 decrease inmore »the derived structure growth parameter S8 = σ8(Ωm/0.3)0.5 is seen due to unrecognized blending in both tomographies with a slight additional bias for the photo-z-based tomography. This bias is greater than the 2σ statistical error in measuring S8.

    « less