skip to main content

Title: Nuclear movement in growing Arabidopsis root hairs involves both actin filaments and microtubules
Abstract

Nuclear migration during growth and development is a conserved phenomenon among many eukaryotic species. In Arabidopsis, movement of the nucleus is important for root hair growth, but the detailed mechanism behind this movement is not well known. Previous studies in different cell types have reported that the myosin XI-I motor protein is responsible for this nuclear movement by attaching to the nuclear transmembrane protein complex WIT1/WIT2. Here, we analyzed nuclear movement in growing root hairs of wild-type, myosin xi-i, and wit1 wit2 Arabidopsis lines in the presence of actin and microtubule-disrupting inhibitors to determine the individual effects of actin filaments and microtubules on nuclear movement. We discovered that forward nuclear movement during root hair growth can occur in the absence of myosin XI-I, suggesting the presence of an alternative actin-based mechanism that mediates rapid nuclear displacements. By quantifying nuclear movements with high temporal resolution during the initial phase of inhibitor treatment, we determined that microtubules work to dampen erratic nuclear movements during root hair growth. We also observed microtubule-dependent backwards nuclear movement when actin filaments were impaired in the absence of myosin XI-I, indicating the presence of complex interactions between the cytoskeletal arrays during nuclear movements in growing root more » hairs.

« less
Authors:
; ; ;
Publication Date:
NSF-PAR ID:
10371578
Journal Name:
Journal of Experimental Botany
Volume:
73
Issue:
16
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
p. 5388-5399
ISSN:
0022-0957
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. After eukaryotic fertilization, gamete nuclei migrate to fuse parental genomes in order to initiate development of the next generation. In most animals, microtubules control female and male pronuclear migration in the zygote. Flowering plants, on the other hand, have evolved actin filament (F-actin)-based sperm nuclear migration systems for karyogamy. Flowering plants have also evolved a unique double-fertilization process: two female gametophytic cells, the egg and central cells, are each fertilized by a sperm cell. The molecular and cellular mechanisms of how flowering plants utilize and control F-actin for double-fertilization events are largely unknown. Using confocal microscopy live-cell imaging with a combination of pharmacological and genetic approaches, we identified factors involved in F-actin dynamics and sperm nuclear migration inArabidopsis thaliana(Arabidopsis) andNicotiana tabacum(tobacco). We demonstrate that the F-actin regulator, SCAR2, but not the ARP2/3 protein complex, controls the coordinated active F-actin movement. These results imply that an ARP2/3-independent WAVE/SCAR-signaling pathway regulates F-actin dynamics in female gametophytic cells for fertilization. We also identify that the class XI myosin XI-G controls active F-actin movement in theArabidopsiscentral cell. XI-G is not a simple transporter, moving cargos along F-actin, but can generate forces that control the dynamic movement of F-actin for fertilization. Our results provide insightsmore »into the mechanisms that control gamete nuclear migration and reveal regulatory pathways for dynamic F-actin movement in flowering plants.

    « less
  2. Coordination between actin and microtubules is important for numerous cellular processes in diverse eukaryotes. In plants, tip-growing cells require actin for cell expansion and microtubules for orientation of cell expansion, but how the two cytoskeletons are linked is an open question. In tip-growing cells of the moss Physcomitrella patens , we show that an actin cluster near the cell apex dictates the direction of rapid cell expansion. Formation of this structure depends on the convergence of microtubules near the cell tip. We discovered that microtubule convergence requires class VIII myosin function, and actin is necessary for myosin VIII–mediated focusing of microtubules. The loss of myosin VIII function affects both networks, indicating functional connections among the three cytoskeletal components. Our data suggest that microtubules direct localization of formins, actin nucleation factors, that generate actin filaments further focusing microtubules, thereby establishing a positive feedback loop ensuring that actin polymerization and cell expansion occur at a defined site resulting in persistent polarized growth.
  3. It is widely believed that cleavage-furrow formation during cytokinesis is driven by the contraction of a ring containing F-actin and type-II myosin. However, even in cells that have such rings, they are not always essential for furrow formation. Moreover, many taxonomically diverse eukaryotic cells divide by furrowing but have no type-II myosin, making it unlikely that an actomyosin ring drives furrowing. To explore this issue further, we have used one such organism, the green algaChlamydomonas reinhardtii. We found that although F-actin is associated with the furrow region, none of the three myosins (of types VIII and XI) is localized there. Moreover, when F-actin was eliminated through a combination of a mutation and a drug, furrows still formed and the cells divided, although somewhat less efficiently than normal. Unexpectedly, division of the largeChlamydomonaschloroplast was delayed in the cells lacking F-actin; as this organelle lies directly in the path of the cleavage furrow, this delay may explain, at least in part, the delay in cytokinesis itself. Earlier studies had shown an association of microtubules with the cleavage furrow, and we used a fluorescently tagged EB1 protein to show that microtubules are still associated with the furrows in the absence of F-actin, consistentmore »with the possibility that the microtubules are important for furrow formation. We suggest that the actomyosin ring evolved as one way to improve the efficiency of a core process for furrow formation that was already present in ancestral eukaryotes.

    « less
  4. Abstract

    Microtubules are dynamic tubulin polymers responsible for many cellular processes, including the capture and segregation of chromosomes during mitosis. In contrast to textbook models of tubulin self-assembly, we have recently demonstrated that microtubules elongate by addition of bent guanosine triphosphate tubulin to the tips of curving protofilaments. Here we explore this mechanism of microtubule growth using Brownian dynamics modeling and electron cryotomography. The previously described flaring shapes of growing microtubule tips are remarkably consistent under various assembly conditions, including different tubulin concentrations, the presence or absence of a polymerization catalyst or tubulin-binding drugs. Simulations indicate that development of substantial forces during microtubule growth and shortening requires a high activation energy barrier in lateral tubulin-tubulin interactions. Modeling offers a mechanism to explain kinetochore coupling to growing microtubule tips under assisting force, and it predicts a load-dependent acceleration of microtubule assembly, providing a role for the flared morphology of growing microtubule ends.

  5. Abstract Background

    Genome wide association (GWA) studies demonstrate linkages between genetic variants and traits of interest. Here, we tested associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in rice (Oryza sativa) and two root hair traits, root hair length (RHL) and root hair density (RHD). Root hairs are outgrowths of single cells on the root epidermis that aid in nutrient and water acquisition and have also served as a model system to study cell differentiation and tip growth. Using lines from the Rice Diversity Panel-1, we explored the diversity of root hair length and density across four subpopulations of rice (aus,indica,temperate japonica, andtropical japonica). GWA analysis was completed using the high-density rice array (HDRA) and the rice reference panel (RICE-RP) SNP sets.

    Results

    We identified 18 genomic regions related to root hair traits, 14 of which related to RHD and four to RHL. No genomic regions were significantly associated with both traits. Two regions overlapped with previously identified quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with root hair density in rice. We identified candidate genes in these regions and present those with previously published expression data relevant to root hair development. We re-phenotyped a subset of lines with extreme RHD phenotypes and found that the variationmore »in RHD was due to differences in cell differentiation, not cell size, indicating genes in an associated genomic region may influence root hair cell fate. The candidate genes that we identified showed little overlap with previously characterized genes in rice andArabidopsis.

    Conclusions

    Root hair length and density are quantitative traits with complex and independent genetic control in rice. The genomic regions described here could be used as the basis for QTL development and further analysis of the genetic control of root hair length and density. We present a list of candidate genes involved in root hair formation and growth in rice, many of which have not been previously identified as having a relation to root hair growth. Since little is known about root hair growth in grasses, these provide a guide for further research and crop improvement.

    « less