skip to main content

Title: Ultraviolet Spectroscopy and TARDIS Models of the Broad-lined Type Ic Supernova 2014ad

Few published ultraviolet (UV) spectra exist for stripped-envelope supernovae and none to date for broad-lined Type Ic supernovae (SNe Ic-bl). These objects have extremely high ejecta velocities and are the only supernova type directly linked to gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Here we present two epochs of HST/STIS spectra of the SN Ic-bl 2014ad, the first UV spectra for this class. We supplement this with 26 new epochs of ground-based optical spectra, augmenting a rich spectral time series. The UV spectra do not show strong features and are consistent with broadened versions of other SN Ic spectra observed in the UV. We measure Feii5169 Å velocities and show that SN 2014ad has even higher ejecta velocities than most SNe Ic both with and without observed GRBs. We construct models of the SN 2014ad UV+optical spectra usingtardis, a 1D Monte Carlo radiative-transfer spectral synthesis code. The models fit the data well at multiple epochs in the optical but underestimate the flux in the UV, likely due to simplifying assumptions. We find that high densities at high velocities are needed to reproduce the spectra, with ∼3Mof material atv> 22,000 km s−1, assuming spherical symmetry. Our nebular line fits suggest a steep density profile at low velocities. Together, these results imply a higher total ejecta mass than estimated from previous light-curve analysis and expected from theory. This may be reconciled by a flattening of the density profile at low velocity and extra emission near the center of the ejecta.

more » « less
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Publisher / Repository:
DOI PREFIX: 10.3847
Date Published:
Journal Name:
The Astrophysical Journal
Medium: X Size: Article No. 40
["Article No. 40"]
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Abstract

    We present multiwavelength time-series spectroscopy of SN 2013aa and SN 2017cbv, two Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) on the outskirts of the same host galaxy, NGC 5643. This work utilizes new nebular-phase near-infrared (NIR) spectra obtained by the Carnegie Supernova Project-II, in addition to previously published optical and NIR spectra. Using nebular-phase [Feii] lines in the optical and NIR, we examine the explosion kinematics and test the efficacy of several common emission-line-fitting techniques. The NIR [Feii] 1.644μm line provides the most robust velocity measurements against variations due to the choice of the fit method and line blending. The resulting effects on velocity measurements due to choosing different fit methods, initial fit parameters, continuum and line profile functions, and fit region boundaries were also investigated. The NIR [Feii] velocities yield the same radial shift direction as velocities measured using the optical [Feii]λ7155 line, but the sizes of the shifts are consistently and substantially lower, pointing to a potential issue in optical studies. The NIR [Feii] 1.644μm emission profile shows a lack of significant asymmetry in both SNe, and the observed low velocities elevate the importance for correcting for any velocity contribution from the host galaxy’s rotation. The low [Feii] velocities measured in the NIR at nebular phases disfavor progenitor scenarios in close double-degenerate systems for both SN 2013aa and SN 2017cbv. The time evolution of the NIR [Feii] 1.644μm line also indicates moderately high progenitor white dwarf central density and potentially high magnetic fields.

    more » « less
  2. null (Ed.)
    ABSTRACT ASASSN-18am/SN 2018gk is a newly discovered member of the rare group of luminous, hydrogen-rich supernovae (SNe) with a peak absolute magnitude of MV ≈ −20 mag that is in between normal core-collapse SNe and superluminous SNe. These SNe show no prominent spectroscopic signatures of ejecta interacting with circumstellar material (CSM), and their powering mechanism is debated. ASASSN-18am declines extremely rapidly for a Type II SN, with a photospheric-phase decline rate of ∼6.0 mag (100 d)−1. Owing to the weakening of H i and the appearance of He i in its later phases, ASASSN-18am is spectroscopically a Type IIb SN with a partially stripped envelope. However, its photometric and spectroscopic evolution shows significant differences from typical SNe IIb. Using a radiative diffusion model, we find that the light curve requires a high synthesized 56Ni mass $M_{\rm Ni} \sim 0.4\, \rm {M_{\odot }}$ and ejecta with high kinetic energy Ekin = (7–10) × 1051 erg. Introducing a magnetar central engine still requires $M_{\rm Ni} \sim 0.3\, \rm {M_{\odot }}$ and Ekin = 3 × 1051 erg. The high 56Ni mass is consistent with strong iron-group nebular lines in its spectra, which are also similar to several SNe Ic-BL with high 56Ni yields. The earliest spectrum shows ‘flash ionization’ features, from which we estimate a mass-loss rate of $\dot{M}\approx 2\times 10^{-4} \, \rm \rm {M_{\odot }}\,yr^{-1}$. This wind density is too low to power the luminous light curve by ejecta–CSM interaction. We measure expansion velocities as high as 17 000 $\rm {\, km\, s^{-1}}$ for Hα, which is remarkably high compared to other SNe II. We estimate an oxygen core mass of 1.8–3.4 M⊙ using the [O i] luminosity measured from a nebular-phase spectrum, implying a progenitor with a zero-age main-sequence mass of 19–26 M⊙. 
    more » « less
  3. Abstract

    We present observations of a peculiar hydrogen- and helium-poor stripped-envelope (SE) supernova (SN) 2020wnt, primarily in the optical and near-infrared (near-IR). Its peak absolute bolometric magnitude of −20.9 mag (Lbol, peak= (6.8 ± 0.3) × 1043erg s−1) and a rise time of 69 days are reminiscent of hydrogen-poor superluminous SNe (SLSNe I), luminous transients potentially powered by spinning-down magnetars. Before the main peak, there is a brief peak lasting <10 days post explosion, likely caused by interaction with circumstellar medium (CSM) ejected ∼years before the SN explosion. The optical spectra near peak lack a hot continuum and Oiiabsorptions, which are signs of heating from a central engine; they quantitatively resemble those of radioactivity-powered hydrogen/helium-poor Type Ic SESNe. At ∼1 yr after peak, nebular spectra reveal a blue pseudo-continuum and narrow Oirecombination lines associated with magnetar heating. Radio observations rule out strong CSM interactions as the dominant energy source at +266 days post peak. Near-IR observations at +200–300 days reveal carbon monoxide and dust formation, which causes a dramatic optical light-curve dip. Pair-instability explosion models predict slow light curve and spectral features incompatible with observations. SN 2020wnt is best explained as a magnetar-powered core-collapse explosion of a 28Mpre-SN star. The explosion kinetic energy is significantly larger than the magnetar energy at peak, effectively concealing the magnetar-heated inner ejecta until well after peak. SN 2020wnt falls into a continuum between normal SNe Ic and SLSNe I, and demonstrates that optical spectra at peak alone cannot rule out the presence of a central engine.

    more » « less
  4. Abstract

    We present five far- and near-ultraviolet spectra of the Type II plateau supernova, SN 2022acko, obtained 5, 6, 7, 19, and 21 days after explosion, all observed with the Hubble Space Telescope/Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph. The first three epochs are earlier than any Type II plateau supernova has been observed in the far-ultraviolet revealing unprecedented characteristics. These three spectra are dominated by strong lines, primarily from metals, which contrasts with the featureless early optical spectra. The flux decreases over the initial time series as the ejecta cool and line blanketing takes effect. We model this unique data set with the non–local thermodynamic equilibrium radiation transport codeCMFGEN, finding a good match to the explosion of a low-mass red supergiant with energyEkin= 6 × 1050erg. With these models we identify, for the first time, the ions that dominate the early ultraviolet spectra. We present optical photometry and spectroscopy, showing that SN 2022acko has a peak absolute magnitude ofV= − 15.4 mag and plateau length of ∼115 days. The spectra closely resemble those of SN 2005cs and SN 2012A. Using the combined optical and ultraviolet spectra, we report the fraction of flux as a function of bluest wavelength on days 5, 7, and 19. We create a spectral time-series of Type II supernovae in the ultraviolet, demonstrating the rapid decline of flux over the first few weeks of evolution. Future observations of Type II supernovae are required to map out the landscape of exploding red supergiants, with and without circumstellar material, which is best revealed in high-quality ultraviolet spectra.

    more » « less
  5. Abstract

    With the advent of high-cadence, all-sky automated surveys, supernovae (SNe) are now discovered closer than ever to their dates of explosion. However, young premaximum light follow-up spectra of Type Ic SNe (SNe Ic), probably arising from the most-stripped massive stars, remain rare despite their importance. In this Letter, we present a set of 49 optical spectra observed with the Las Cumbres Observatory through the Global Supernova Project for 6 SNe Ic, including a total of 17 premaximum spectra, of which 8 are observed more than a week beforeV-band maximum light. This data set increases the total number of publicly available premaximum-light SN Ic spectra by 25%, and we provide publicly available SNID templates that will significantly aid in the fast identification of young SNe Ic in the future. We present a detailed analysis of these spectra, including Feii5169 velocity measurements, Oi7774 line strengths, and continuum shapes. We compare our results to published samples of stripped SNe in the literature and find one SN in our sample that stands out. SN 2019ewu has a unique combination of features for an SN Ic: an extremely blue continuum, high absorption velocities, a P Cygni–shaped feature almost 2 weeks before maximum light that TARDIS radiative transfer modeling attributes to Ciirather than Hα, and weak or nonexistent Oi7774 absorption feature until maximum light.

    more » « less