The development of integrated semiconductor lasers has miniaturized traditional bulky laser systems, enabling a wide range of photonic applications. A progression from pure III-V based lasers to III-V/external cavity structures has harnessed low-loss waveguides in different material systems, leading to significant improvements in laser coherence and stability. Despite these successes, however, key functions remain absent. In this work, we address a critical missing function by integrating the Pockels effect into a semiconductor laser. Using a hybrid integrated III-V/Lithium Niobate structure, we demonstrate several essential capabilities that have not existed in previous integrated lasers. These include a record-high frequency modulation speed of 2 exahertz/s (2.0 × 1018Hz/s) and fast switching at 50 MHz, both of which are made possible by integration of the electro-optic effect. Moreover, the device co-lases at infrared and visible frequencies via the second-harmonic frequency conversion process, the first such integrated multi-color laser. Combined with its narrow linewidth and wide tunability, this new type of integrated laser holds promise for many applications including LiDAR, microwave photonics, atomic physics, and AR/VR.
- Publication Date:
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Journal Name:
- Nature Communications
- Nature Publishing Group
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
More Like this
Quasi-continuous wavelength tuning of single-mode interband cascade lasers based on V-coupled cavityZhu, Ning Hua ; Hofmann, Werner H. ; He, Jian-Jun (Ed.)Mid-infrared semiconductor lasers have a wide range of applications in gas sensing, environmental monitoring, medical diagnosis and other fields. The V-coupled cavity laser (VCCL) approach has been successfully applied in the communication band to achieve single-mode operation with a wide tuning range because of its advantages of no grating, compact structure and simple wavelength control. In this paper, the concept of V-coupled cavity is introduced to the interband cascaded lasers, and a monolithically integrated mid-infrared widely tunable single-mode laser is developed. In addition, we experimentally demonstrated a simple and general algorithm for wavelength tuning controlled by two electrodes synchronously, and realized quasi-continuous tuning of single-mode wavelength in mid-infrared interband cascade laser based on the V-coupled cavity configuration for the first time. In the tuning process, the injection current of the short cavity remains unchanged, and the stepped increase of the long cavity current is equivalent to the realization of discrete tuning with the channel spacing of 1.1 nm determined by the short cavity. With the increase of the injection current of the coupler electrode while fixing the long cavity current, the thermo-optic effect caused by the coupler current will cause the refractive index of the two FP cavities to changemore »
Resonant tunneling diodes (RTDs) have come full-circle in the past 10 years after their demonstration in the early 1990s as the fastest room-temperature semiconductor oscillator, displaying experimental results up to 712 GHz and fmax values exceeding 1.0 THz . Now the RTD is once again the preeminent electronic oscillator above 1.0 THz and is being implemented as a coherent source  and a self-oscillating mixer , amongst other applications. This paper concerns RTD electroluminescence – an effect that has been studied very little in the past 30+ years of RTD development, and not at room temperature. We present experiments and modeling of an n-type In0.53Ga0.47As/AlAs double-barrier RTD operating as a cross-gap light emitter at ~300K. The MBE-growth stack is shown in Fig. 1(a). A 15-μm-diam-mesa device was defined by standard planar processing including a top annular ohmic contact with a 5-μm-diam pinhole in the center to couple out enough of the internal emission for accurate free-space power measurements . The emission spectra have the behavior displayed in Fig. 1(b), parameterized by bias voltage (VB). The long wavelength emission edge is at = 1684 nm - close to the In0.53Ga0.47As bandgap energy of Ug ≈ 0.75 eV at 300 K.more »
Modulation-based control and locking of lasers, filters and other photonic components is a ubiquitous function across many applications that span the visible to infrared (IR), including atomic, molecular and optical (AMO), quantum sciences, fiber communications, metrology, and microwave photonics. Today, modulators used to realize these control functions consist of high-power bulk-optic components for tuning, sideband modulation, and phase and frequency shifting, while providing low optical insertion loss and operation from DC to 10s of MHz. In order to reduce the size, weight and cost of these applications and improve their scalability and reliability, modulation control functions need to be implemented in a low loss, wafer-scale CMOS-compatible photonic integration platform. The silicon nitride integration platform has been successful at realizing extremely low waveguide losses across the visible to infrared and components including high performance lasers, filters, resonators, stabilization cavities, and optical frequency combs. Yet, progress towards implementing low loss, low power modulators in the silicon nitride platform, while maintaining wafer-scale process compatibility has been limited. Here we report a significant advance in integration of a piezo-electric (PZT, lead zirconate titanate) actuated micro-ring modulation in a fully-planar, wafer-scale silicon nitride platform, that maintains low optical loss (0.03 dB/cm in a 625 µmmore »
In the field of beam physics, two frontier topics have taken center stage due to their potential to enable new approaches to discovery in a wide swath of science. These areas are: advanced, high gradient acceleration techniques, and x-ray free electron lasers (XFELs). Further, there is intense interest in the marriage of these two fields, with the goal of producing a very compact XFEL. In this context, recent advances in high gradient radio-frequency cryogenic copper structure research have opened the door to the use of surface electric fields between 250 and 500 MV m−1. Such an approach is foreseen to enable a new generation of photoinjectors with six-dimensional beam brightness beyond the current state-of-the-art by well over an order of magnitude. This advance is an essential ingredient enabling an ultra-compact XFEL (UC-XFEL). In addition, one may accelerate these bright beams to GeV scale in less than 10 m. Such an injector, when combined with inverse free electron laser-based bunching techniques can produce multi-kA beams with unprecedented beam quality, quantified by 50 nm-rad normalized emittances. The emittance, we note, is the effective area in transverse phase space (
x, p x/ me c) or ( y, p y/ me c) occupied by the beam distribution, and it is relevant tomore »
In this Letter, we have demonstrated wavelength beam combining (WBC) through hybrid integration of photonic integrated circuits (PICs) to significantly reduce the size, weight, and operation power of the laser combining system. The hybrid integration WBC includes III/V semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs), which provide gain, and the silicon nitride PICs, which perform as the external cavity. We first show that the arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) -based hybrid laser defines the lasing wavelength through the AWG passband. We then demonstrate that the AWG successfully forms multiple channel lasers by combining SOAs in the hybrid platform.