Spinach is a nutritious leafy vegetable belonging to the family Chenopodiaceae. Here we report a high-quality chromosome-scale reference genome assembly of spinach and genome resequencing of 305 cultivated and wild spinach accessions. Reconstruction of ancestral Chenopodiaceae karyotype indicates substantial genome rearrangements in spinach after its divergence from ancestral Chenopodiaceae, coinciding with high repeat content in the spinach genome. Population genomic analyses provide insights into spinach genetic diversity and population differentiation. Genome-wide association studies of 20 agronomical traits identify numerous significantly associated regions and candidate genes for these traits. Domestication sweeps in the spinach genome are identified, some of which are associated with important traits (e.g., leaf phenotype, bolting and flowering), demonstrating the role of artificial selection in shaping spinach phenotypic evolution. This study provides not only insights into the spinach evolution and domestication but also valuable resources for facilitating spinach breeding.
The Aldabra giant tortoise (Aldabrachelys gigantea) is one of only two giant tortoise species left in the world. The species is endemic to Aldabra Atoll in Seychelles and is listed as Vulnerable on the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List (v2.3) due to its limited distribution and threats posed by climate change. Genomic resources for A. gigantea are lacking, hampering conservation efforts for both wild and ex situpopulations. A high-quality genome would also open avenues to investigate the genetic basis of the species’ exceptionally long life span.
We produced the first chromosome-level de novo genome assembly of A. gigantea using PacBio High-Fidelity sequencing and high-throughput chromosome conformation capture. We produced a 2.37-Gbp assembly with a scaffold N50 of 148.6 Mbp and a resolution into 26 chromosomes. RNA sequencing–assisted gene model prediction identified 23,953 protein-coding genes and 1.1 Gbp of repetitive sequences. Synteny analyses among turtle genomes revealed high levels of chromosomal collinearity even among distantly related taxa. To assess the utility of the high-quality assembly for species conservation, we performed a low-coverage resequencing of 30 individuals from wild populations and two zoo individuals. Our genome-wide population structure analyses detected genetic population structure in the wild and identified more »
We establish a high-quality chromosome-level reference genome for A. gigantea and one of the most complete turtle genomes available. We show that low-coverage whole-genome resequencing, for which alignment to the reference genome is a necessity, is a powerful tool to assess the population structure of the wild population and reveal the geographic origins of ex situ individuals relevant for genetic diversity management and rewilding efforts.
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- Oxford University Press
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- National Science Foundation
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Genomic analyses provide insights into spinach domestication and the genetic basis of agronomic traits
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