Understanding a tsunami source and its impact is vital to assess a tsunami hazard. Thanks to the efforts of the tsunami survey teams, high‐quality tsunami run‐up data exist for contemporary events. Still, it has not been widely used to infer a tsunami source and its impact mainly due to the computational burden of the tsunami forward model. In this study, we propose a TRRF‐INV (Tsunami Run‐up Response Function‐based INVersion) model that can provide probabilistic estimates of a near‐field tsunami source and tsunami run‐up distribution from a small number of run‐up records. We tested the TRRF‐INV model with synthetic tsunami scenarios in northern Chile and applied it to the 2014 Iquique, Chile, tsunami event as a case study. The results demonstrated that the TRRF‐INV model can provide a reasonable tsunami source estimate to first order and estimate tsunami run‐up distribution well. Moreover, the case‐study results agree well with the United States Geological Survey report and the global Centroid Moment Tensor solution. We also analyzed the performance of the TRRF‐INV model depending on the number and the uncertainty of run‐up records. We believe that the TRRF‐INV model has the potential for supporting accurate hazard assessment by (1) providing new insights from tsunami run‐up records into the tsunami source and its impact, (2) using the TRRF‐INV model as a tool to support existing tsunami inversion models, and (3) estimating a tsunami source and its impact for ancient events where no data other than estimated run‐up from sediment deposit data exist.
Models of bathymetry derived from satellite radar altimetry are essential for modeling many marine processes. They are affected by uncertainties which require quantification. We propose an uncertainty model that assumes errors are caused by the lack of high‐wavenumber content within the altimetry data. The model is then applied to a tsunami hazard assessment. We build a bathymetry uncertainty model for northern Chile. Statistical properties of the altimetry‐predicted bathymetry error are obtained using multibeam data. We find that a Von Karman correlation function and a Laplacian marginal distribution can be used to define an uncertainty model based on a random field. We also propose a method for generating synthetic bathymetry samples conditional to shipboard measurements. The method is further extended to account for interpolation uncertainties, when bathymetry data resolution is finer than
- Award ID(s):
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- DOI PREFIX: 10.1029
- Date Published:
- Journal Name:
- Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth
- Medium: X
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
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