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Title: Statistical Study of Ion Upflow and Downflow Observed by PFISR

Ion upflow in theFregion and topside ionosphere can greatly influence the ion density and fluxes at higher altitudes and thus has significant impact on ion outflow. We investigated the statistical characteristics of ion upflow and downflow using a 3‐year (2011–2013) data set from the Poker Flat Incoherent Scatter Radar (PFISR). Ion upflow is twice more likely to occur on the nightside than on the dayside in PFISR observations, while downflow events occur more often in the afternoon sector. Upflow and downflow on the dayside tend to occur at altitudes ~500 km, higher than those on the nightside. Both upflow and downflow occur more frequently as ion convection speed increases. Upflow observed from 16 to 6 magnetic local time through midnight is associated with temperature and density enhancements. Occurrence rates of upflow on the nightside and downflow on the dayside increase with geomagnetic activity level. On the nightside, occurrence rate of ion upflow increases with enhanced solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) drivers as well as southwestward local magnetic perturbations. The lack of correlation of upflow on the dayside with the solar wind and IMF parameters is because PFISR is usually equatorward of the dayside auroral zone. Occurrence rate of downflow does not show strong dependence on the solar wind and IMF conditions. However, it occurs much more frequently on the dayside when the IMFBy > 10 nT and the IMFBz < −10 nT, which we suggest is associated with the decaying of the dayside storm‐enhanced density (SED) and the SED plume.

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Author(s) / Creator(s):
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Publisher / Repository:
DOI PREFIX: 10.1029
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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