skip to main content

Title: Feature-based volumetric defect classification in metal additive manufacturing

Volumetric defect types commonly observed in the additively manufactured parts differ in their morphologies ascribed to their formation mechanisms. Using high-resolution X-ray computed tomography, this study analyzes the morphological features of volumetric defects, and their statistical distribution, in laser powder bed fused Ti-6Al-4V. The geometries of three common types of volumetric defects; i.e., lack of fusions, gas-entrapped pores, and keyholes, are quantified by nine parameters including maximum dimension, roundness, sparseness, aspect ratio, and more. It is shown that the three defect types share overlaps of different degrees in the ranges of their morphological parameters; thus, employing only one or two parameters cannot uniquely determine a defect’s type. To overcome this challenge, a defect classification methodology incorporating multiple morphological parameters has been proposed. In this work, by employing the most discriminating parameters, this methodology has been shown effective when implemented into decision tree (>98% accuracy) and artificial neural network (>99% accuracy).

; ; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Journal Name:
Nature Communications
Nature Publishing Group
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Thin solids often develop elastic instabilities and subsequently complex, multiscale deformation patterns. Revealing the organizing principles of this spatial complexity has ramifications for our understanding of morphogenetic processes in plant leaves and animal epithelia and perhaps even the formation of human fingerprints. We elucidate a primary source of this morphological complexity—an incompatibility between an elastically favored “microstructure” of uniformly spaced wrinkles and a “macrostructure” imparted through the wrinkle director and dictated by confinement forces. Our theory is borne out of experiments and simulations of floating sheets subjected to radial stretching. By analyzing patterns of grossly radial wrinkles we find two sharply distinct morphologies: defect-free patterns with a fixed number of wrinkles and nonuniform spacing and patterns of uniformly spaced wrinkles separated by defect-rich buffer zones. We show how these morphological types reflect distinct minima of a Ginzburg–Landau functional—a coarse-grained version of the elastic energy, which penalizes nonuniform wrinkle spacing and amplitude, as well as deviations of the actual director from the axis imposed by confinement. Our results extend the effective description of wrinkle patterns as liquid crystals [H. Aharoniet al.,Nat. Commun.8, 15809 (2017)], and we highlight a fascinating analogy between the geometry–energy interplay that underlies the proliferation of defects inmore »the mechanical equilibrium of confined sheets and in thermodynamic phases of superconductors and chiral liquid crystals.

    « less
  2. Abstract

    Cavitation has long been recognized as a crucial predictor, or precursor, to the ultimate failure of various materials, ranging from ductile metals to soft and biological materials. Traditionally, cavitation in solids is defined as an unstable expansion of a void or a defect within a material. The critical applied load needed to trigger this instability -- the critical pressure -- is a lengthscale independent material property and has been predicted by numerous theoretical studies for a breadth of constitutive models. While these studies usually assume that cavitation initiates from defects in the bulk of an otherwise homogeneous medium, an alternative and potentially more ubiquitous scenario can occur if the defects are found at interfaces between two distinct media within the body. Such interfaces are becoming increasingly common in modern materials with the use of multimaterial composites and layer-by-layer additive manufacturing methods. However, a criterion to determine the threshold for interfacial failure, in analogy to the bulk cavitation limit, has yet to be reported. In this work, we fill this gap. Our theoretical model captures a lengthscale independent limit for interfacial cavitation, and is shown to agree with our observations at two distinct lengthscales, via two different experimental systems. Tomore »further understand the competition between the two cavitation modes (bulk versus interface), we expand our investigation beyond the elastic response to understand the ensuing unstable propagation of delamination at the interface. A phase diagram summarizes these results, showing regimes in which interfacial failure becomes the dominant mechanism.

    « less
  3. Abstract

    Ion irradiation is a versatile tool to introduce controlled defects into two-dimensional (2D) MoS2on account of its unique spatial resolution and plethora of ion types and energies available. In order to fully realise the potential of this technique, a holistic understanding of ion-induced defect production in 2D MoS2crystals of different thicknesses is mandatory. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, electron diffraction and Raman spectroscopy show that thinner MoS2crystals are more susceptible to radiation damage caused by 225 keV Xe+ions. However, the rate of defect production in quadrilayer and bulk crystals is not significantly different under our experimental conditions. The rate at which S atoms are sputtered as a function of radiation exposure is considerably higher for monolayer MoS2, compared to bulk crystals, leading to MoO3formation. P-doping of MoS2is observed and attributed to the acceptor states introduced by vacancies and charge transfer interactions with adsorbed species. Moreover, the out-of-plane vibrational properties of irradiated MoS2crystals are shown to be strongly thickness-dependent: in mono- and bilayer MoS2, the confinement of phonons by defects results in a blueshift of theA1gmode. Whereas, a redshift is observed in bulk crystals due to attenuation of the effective restoring forces acting on S atoms caused by vacanciesmore »in adjacent MoS2layers. Consequently, theA1gfrequency of tri- and quadrilayer crystals is statistically invariant on account oft competition between phonon confinement effects and interlayer interactions. TheA1glinewidth is observed to decrease in bi- and trilayer crystals after low dose irradiation and is attributed to layer decoupling. This work shows that there is a complex interplay between defect production, crystal thickness and interlayer interactions in MoS2. Our results demonstrate that ion irradiation is an effective tool to modulate the electronic, vibrational and structural properties of MoS2, which may prove beneficial for practical applications.

    « less
  4. Abstract Surface defect identification is a crucial task in many manufacturing systems, including automotive, aircraft, steel rolling, and precast concrete. Although image-based surface defect identification methods have been proposed, these methods usually have two limitations: images may lose partial information, such as depths of surface defects, and their precision is vulnerable to many factors, such as the inspection angle, light, color, noise, etc. Given that a three-dimensional (3D) point cloud can precisely represent the multidimensional structure of surface defects, we aim to detect and classify surface defects using a 3D point cloud. This has two major challenges: (i) the defects are often sparsely distributed over the surface, which makes their features prone to be hidden by the normal surface and (ii) different permutations and transformations of 3D point cloud may represent the same surface, so the proposed model needs to be permutation and transformation invariant. In this paper, a two-step surface defect identification approach is developed to investigate the defects’ patterns in 3D point cloud data. The proposed approach consists of an unsupervised method for defect detection and a multi-view deep learning model for defect classification, which can keep track of the features from both defective and non-defective regions. Wemore »prove that the proposed approach is invariant to different permutations and transformations. Two case studies are conducted for defect identification on the surfaces of synthetic aircraft fuselage and the real precast concrete specimen, respectively. The results show that our approach receives the best defect detection and classification accuracy compared with other benchmark methods.« less
  5. Abstract

    Phonons are considered to be universal quantum transducers due to their ability to couple to a wide variety of quantum systems. Among these systems, solid-state point defect spins are known for being long-lived optically accessible quantum memories. Recently, it has been shown that inversion-symmetric defects in diamond, such as the negatively charged silicon vacancy center (SiV), feature spin qubits that are highly susceptible to strain. Here, we leverage this strain response to achieve coherent and low-power acoustic control of a single SiV spin, and perform acoustically driven Ramsey interferometry of a single spin. Our results demonstrate an efficient method of spin control for these systems, offering a path towards strong spin-phonon coupling and phonon-mediated hybrid quantum systems.