skip to main content

Title: The Space Density of Intermediate-redshift, Extremely Compact, Massive Starburst Galaxies

We present a measurement of the intrinsic space density of intermediate-redshift (z∼ 0.5), massive (M*∼ 1011M), compact (Re∼ 100 pc) starburst (ΣSFR∼ 1000Myr−1kpc−1) galaxies with tidal features indicative of them having undergone recent major mergers. A subset of them host kiloparsec-scale, > 1000 km s−1outflows and have little indication of AGN activity, suggesting that extreme star formation can be a primary driver of large-scale feedback. The aim for this paper is to calculate their space density so we can place them in a better cosmological context. We do this by empirically modeling the stellar populations of massive, compact starburst galaxies. We determine the average timescale on which galaxies that have recently undergone an extreme nuclear starburst would be targeted and included in our spectroscopically selected sample. We find that massive, compact starburst galaxies targeted by our criteria would be selectable for14824+27Myr and have an intrinsic space densitynCS(1.10.3+0.5)×106Mpc3. This space density is broadly consistent with ourz∼ 0.5 compact starbursts being the most extremely compact and star-forming low-redshift analogs of the compact star-forming galaxies in the early universe, as well as them being the progenitors to a fraction of intermediate-redshift, post-starburst, and compact quiescent galaxies.

more » « less
Award ID(s):
1813702 1813299
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Publisher / Repository:
DOI PREFIX: 10.3847
Date Published:
Journal Name:
The Astronomical Journal
Medium: X Size: Article No. 222
["Article No. 222"]
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Abstract

    We measure the CO-to-H2conversion factor (αCO) in 37 galaxies at 2 kpc resolution, using the dust surface density inferred from far-infrared emission as a tracer of the gas surface density and assuming a constant dust-to-metal ratio. In total, we have ∼790 and ∼610 independent measurements ofαCOfor CO (2–1) and (1–0), respectively. The mean values forαCO (2–1)andαCO (1–0)are9.35.4+4.6and4.22.0+1.9Mpc2(Kkms1)1, respectively. The CO-intensity-weighted mean is 5.69 forαCO (2–1)and 3.33 forαCO (1–0). We examine howαCOscales with several physical quantities, e.g., the star formation rate (SFR), stellar mass, and dust-mass-weighted average interstellar radiation field strength (U¯). Among them,U¯, ΣSFR, and the integrated CO intensity (WCO) have the strongest anticorrelation with spatially resolvedαCO. We provide linear regression results toαCOfor all quantities tested. At galaxy-integrated scales, we observe significant correlations betweenαCOandWCO, metallicity,U¯, and ΣSFR. We also find thatαCOin each galaxy decreases with the stellar mass surface density (Σ) in high-surface-density regions (Σ≥ 100Mpc−2), following the power-law relationsαCO(21)Σ0.5andαCO(10)Σ0.2. The power-law index is insensitive to the assumed dust-to-metal ratio. We interpret the decrease inαCOwith increasing Σas a result of higher velocity dispersion compared to isolated, self-gravitating clouds due to the additional gravitational force from stellar sources, which leads to the reduction inαCO. The decrease inαCOat high Σis important for accurately assessing molecular gas content and star formation efficiency in the centers of galaxies, which bridge “Milky Way–like” to “starburst-like” conversion factors.

    more » « less
  2. Abstract

    Luminous red novae (LRNe) are transients characterized by low luminosities and expansion velocities, and they are associated with mergers or common-envelope ejections in stellar binaries. Intermediate-luminosity red transients (ILRTs) are an observationally similar class with unknown origins, but they are generally believed to be either electron-capture supernovae in super-asymptotic giant branch stars or outbursts in dusty luminous blue variables (LBVs). In this paper, we present a systematic sample of eight LRNe and eight ILRTs detected as part of the Census of the Local Universe (CLU) experiment on the Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF). The CLU experiment spectroscopically classifies ZTF transients associated with nearby (<150 Mpc) galaxies, achieving 80% completeness formr< 20 mag. Using the ZTF-CLU sample, we derive the first systematic LRNe volumetric rate of7.83.7+6.5×105Mpc−3yr−1in the luminosity range −16 ≤Mr≤ −11 mag. We find that, in this luminosity range, the LRN rate scales asdN/dLL2.5±0.3—significantly steeper than the previously derived scaling ofL−1.4±0.3for lower-luminosity LRNe (MV≥ −10 mag). The steeper power law for LRNe at high luminosities is consistent with the massive merger rates predicted by binary population synthesis models. We find that the rates of the brightest LRNe (Mr≤ −13 mag) are consistent with a significant fraction of them being progenitors of double compact objects that merge within a Hubble time. For ILRTs, we derive a volumetric rate of2.61.4+1.8×106Mpc−3yr−1forMr≤ −13.5 mag, which scales asdN/dLL2.5±0.5. This rate is ∼1%–5% of the local core-collapse supernova rate and is consistent with theoretical ECSN rate estimates.

    more » « less
  3. Abstract

    We present the characteristics of 2 mm selected sources from the largest Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) blank-field contiguous survey conducted to date, the Mapping Obscuration to Reionization with ALMA (MORA) survey covering 184 arcmin2at 2 mm. Twelve of 13 detections above 5σare attributed to emission from galaxies, 11 of which are dominated by cold dust emission. These sources have a median redshift ofz2mm=3.60.3+0.4primarily based on optical/near-infrared photometric redshifts with some spectroscopic redshifts, with 77% ± 11% of sources atz> 3 and 38% ± 12% of sources atz> 4. This implies that 2 mm selection is an efficient method for identifying the highest-redshift dusty star-forming galaxies (DSFGs). Lower-redshift DSFGs (z< 3) are far more numerous than those atz> 3 yet are likely to drop out at 2 mm. MORA shows that DSFGs with star formation rates in excess of 300Myr−1and a relative rarity of ∼10−5Mpc−3contribute ∼30% to the integrated star formation rate density at 3 <z< 6. The volume density of 2 mm selected DSFGs is consistent with predictions from some cosmological simulations and is similar to the volume density of their hypothesized descendants: massive, quiescent galaxies atz> 2. Analysis of MORA sources’ spectral energy distributions hint at steeper empirically measured dust emissivity indices than reported in typical literature studies, withβ=2.20.4+0.5. The MORA survey represents an important step in taking census of obscured star formation in the universe’s first few billion years, but larger area 2 mm surveys are needed to more fully characterize this rare population and push to the detection of the universe’s first dusty galaxies.

    more » « less
  4. Abstract

    We measure the correlation between black hole massMBHand host stellar massM*for a sample of 38 broad-line quasars at 0.2 ≲z≲ 0.8 (median redshiftzmed= 0.5). The black hole masses are derived from a dedicated reverberation mapping program for distant quasars, and the stellar masses are derived from two-band optical+IR Hubble Space Telescope imaging. Most of these quasars are well centered within ≲1 kpc from the host galaxy centroid, with only a few cases in merging/disturbed systems showing larger spatial offsets. Our sample spans two orders of magnitude in stellar mass (∼109–1011M) and black hole mass (∼107–109M) and reveals a significant correlation between the two quantities. We find a best-fit intrinsic (i.e., selection effects corrected)MBHM*,hostrelation oflog(MBH/M)=7.010.33+0.23+1.740.64+0.64log(M*,host/1010M), with an intrinsic scatter of0.470.17+0.24dex. Decomposing our quasar hosts into bulges and disks, there is a similarMBHM*,bulgerelation with slightly larger scatter, likely caused by systematic uncertainties in the bulge–disk decomposition. TheMBHM*,hostrelation atzmed= 0.5 is similar to that in local quiescent galaxies, with negligible evolution over the redshift range probed by our sample. With direct black hole masses from reverberation mapping and the large dynamical range of the sample, selection biases do not appear to affect our conclusions significantly. Our results, along with other samples in the literature, suggest that the locally measured black hole mass–host stellar mass relation is already in place atz∼ 1.

    more » « less
  5. Abstract

    We present a multiwavelength analysis of the galaxy cluster SPT-CL J0607-4448 (SPT0607), which is one of the most distant clusters discovered by the South Pole Telescope atz= 1.4010 ± 0.0028. The high-redshift cluster shows clear signs of being relaxed with well-regulated feedback from the active galactic nucleus (AGN) in the brightest cluster galaxy (BCG). Using Chandra X-ray data, we construct thermodynamic profiles and determine the properties of the intracluster medium. The cool-core nature of the cluster is supported by a centrally peaked density profile and low central entropy (K0=189+11keV cm2), which we estimate assuming an isothermal temperature profile due to the limited spectral information given the distance to the cluster. Using the density profile and gas cooling time inferred from the X-ray data, we find a mass-cooling rateṀcool=10060+90Myr−1. From optical spectroscopy and photometry around the [Oii] emission line, we estimate that the BCG star formation rate isSFR[OII]=1.70.6+1.0Myr−1, roughly two orders of magnitude lower than the predicted mass-cooling rate. In addition, using ATCA radio data at 2.1 GHz, we measure a radio jet powerPcav=3.21.3+2.1×1044erg s−1, which is consistent with the X-ray cooling luminosity (Lcool=1.90.5+0.2×1044erg s−1withinrcool= 43 kpc). These findings suggest that SPT0607 is a relaxed, cool-core cluster with AGN-regulated cooling at an epoch shortly after cluster formation, implying that the balance between cooling and feedback can be reached quickly. We discuss the implications for these findings on the evolution of AGN feedback in galaxy clusters.

    more » « less