skip to main content

Title: dICC: distance-based intraclass correlation coefficient for metagenomic reproducibility studies
Abstract Summary

Due to the sparsity and high dimensionality, microbiome data are routinely summarized into pairwise distances capturing the compositional differences. Many biological insights can be gained by analyzing the distance matrix in relation to some covariates. A microbiome sampling method that characterizes the inter-sample relationship more reproducibly is expected to yield higher statistical power. Traditionally, the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) has been used to quantify the degree of reproducibility for a univariate measurement using technical replicates. In this work, we extend the traditional ICC to distance measures and propose a distance-based ICC (dICC). We derive the asymptotic distribution of the sample-based dICC to facilitate statistical inference. We illustrate dICC using a real dataset from a metagenomic reproducibility study.

Availability and implementation

dICC is implemented in the R CRAN package GUniFrac.

Supplementary information

Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

Authors:
; ;
Publication Date:
NSF-PAR ID:
10377929
Journal Name:
Bioinformatics
Volume:
38
Issue:
21
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
p. 4969-4971
ISSN:
1367-4803
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Abstract Motivation

    Genome annotations are a common way to represent genomic features such as genes, regulatory elements or epigenetic modifications. The amount of overlap between two annotations is often used to ascertain if there is an underlying biological connection between them. In order to distinguish between true biological association and overlap by pure chance, a robust measure of significance is required. One common way to do this is to determine if the number of intervals in the reference annotation that intersect the query annotation is statistically significant. However, currently employed statistical frameworks are often either inefficient or inaccurate when computing P-values on the scale of the whole human genome.

    Results

    We show that finding the P-values under the typically used ‘gold’ null hypothesis is NP-hard. This motivates us to reformulate the null hypothesis using Markov chains. To be able to measure the fidelity of our Markovian null hypothesis, we develop a fast direct sampling algorithm to estimate the P-value under the gold null hypothesis. We then present an open-source software tool MCDP that computes the P-values under the Markovian null hypothesis in O(m2+n) time and O(m) memory, where m and n are the numbers of intervals in the reference and query annotations,more »respectively. Notably, MCDP runtime and memory usage are independent from the genome length, allowing it to outperform previous approaches in runtime and memory usage by orders of magnitude on human genome annotations, while maintaining the same level of accuracy.

    Availability and implementation

    The software is available at https://github.com/fmfi-compbio/mc-overlaps. All data for reproducibility are available at https://github.com/fmfi-compbio/mc-overlaps-reproducibility.

    Supplementary information

    Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

    « less
  2. Abstract Motivation

    metal-binding proteins have a central role in maintaining life processes. Nearly one-third of known protein structures contain metal ions that are used for a variety of needs, such as catalysis, DNA/RNA binding, protein structure stability, etc. Identifying metal-binding proteins is thus crucial for understanding the mechanisms of cellular activity. However, experimental annotation of protein metal-binding potential is severely lacking, while computational techniques are often imprecise and of limited applicability.

    Results

    we developed a novel machine learning-based method, mebipred, for identifying metal-binding proteins from sequence-derived features. This method is over 80% accurate in recognizing proteins that bind metal ion-containing ligands; the specific identity of 11 ubiquitously present metal ions can also be annotated. mebipred is reference-free, i.e. no sequence alignments are involved, and is thus faster than alignment-based methods; it is also more accurate than other sequence-based prediction methods. Additionally, mebipred can identify protein metal-binding capabilities from short sequence stretches, e.g. translated sequencing reads, and, thus, may be useful for the annotation of metal requirements of metagenomic samples. We performed an analysis of available microbiome data and found that ocean, hot spring sediments and soil microbiomes use a more diverse set of metals than human host-related ones. For human microbiomes, physiologicalmore »conditions explain the observed metal preferences. Similarly, subtle changes in ocean sample ion concentration affect the abundance of relevant metal-binding proteins. These results highlight mebipred’s utility in analyzing microbiome metal requirements.

    Availability and implementation

    mebipred is available as a web server at services.bromberglab.org/mebipred and as a standalone package at https://pypi.org/project/mymetal/.

    Supplementary information

    Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

    « less
  3. Abstract Motivation

    Modern biological screens yield enormous numbers of measurements, and identifying and interpreting statistically significant associations among features are essential. In experiments featuring multiple high-dimensional datasets collected from the same set of samples, it is useful to identify groups of associated features between the datasets in a way that provides high statistical power and false discovery rate (FDR) control.

    Results

    Here, we present a novel hierarchical framework, HAllA (Hierarchical All-against-All association testing), for structured association discovery between paired high-dimensional datasets. HAllA efficiently integrates hierarchical hypothesis testing with FDR correction to reveal significant linear and non-linear block-wise relationships among continuous and/or categorical data. We optimized and evaluated HAllA using heterogeneous synthetic datasets of known association structure, where HAllA outperformed all-against-all and other block-testing approaches across a range of common similarity measures. We then applied HAllA to a series of real-world multiomics datasets, revealing new associations between gene expression and host immune activity, the microbiome and host transcriptome, metabolomic profiling and human health phenotypes.

    Availability and implementation

    An open-source implementation of HAllA is freely available at http://huttenhower.sph.harvard.edu/halla along with documentation, demo datasets and a user group.

    Supplementary information

    Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  4. Abstract Background

    Understanding the factors that influence microbes’ environmental distributions is important for determining drivers of microbial community composition. These include environmental variables like temperature and pH, and higher-dimensional variables like geographic distance and host species phylogeny. In microbial ecology, “specificity” is often described in the context of symbiotic or host parasitic interactions, but specificity can be more broadly used to describe the extent to which a species occupies a narrower range of an environmental variable than expected by chance. Using a standardization we describe here, Rao’s (Theor Popul Biol, 1982. https://doi.org/10.1016/0040-5809(82)90004-1, Sankhya A, 2010. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13171-010-0016-3 ) Quadratic Entropy can be conveniently applied to calculate specificity of a feature, such as a species, to many different environmental variables.

    Results

    We present our R packagespecificityfor performing the above analyses, and apply it to four real-life microbial data sets to demonstrate its application. We found that many fungi within the leaves of native Hawaiian plants had strong specificity to rainfall and elevation, even though these variables showed minimal importance in a previous analysis of fungal beta-diversity. In Antarctic cryoconite holes, our tool revealed that many bacteria have specificity to co-occurring algal community composition. Similarly, in the human gut microbiome, many bacteria showed specificity tomore »the composition of bile acids. Finally, our analysis of the Earth Microbiome Project data set showed that most bacteria show strong ontological specificity to sample type. Our software performed as expected on synthetic data as well.

    Conclusions

    specificityis well-suited to analysis of microbiome data, both in synthetic test cases, and across multiple environment types and experimental designs. The analysis and software we present here can reveal patterns in microbial taxa that may not be evident from a community-level perspective. These insights can also be visualized and interactively shared among researchers usingspecificity’s companion package,specificity.shiny.

    « less
  5. Abstract Motivation

    Recent advances in biomedical research have made massive amount of transcriptomic data available in public repositories from different sources. Due to the heterogeneity present in the individual experiments, identifying reproducible biomarkers for a given disease from multiple independent studies has become a major challenge. The widely used meta-analysis approaches, such as Fisher’s method, Stouffer’s method, minP and maxP, have at least two major limitations: (i) they are sensitive to outliers, and (ii) they perform only one statistical test for each individual study, and hence do not fully utilize the potential sample size to gain statistical power.

    Results

    Here, we propose a gene-level meta-analysis framework that overcomes these limitations and identifies a gene signature that is reliable and reproducible across multiple independent studies of a given disease. The approach provides a comprehensive global signature that can be used to understand the underlying biological phenomena, and a smaller test signature that can be used to classify future samples of a given disease. We demonstrate the utility of the framework by constructing disease signatures for influenza and Alzheimer’s disease using nine datasets including 1108 individuals. These signatures are then validated on 12 independent datasets including 912 individuals. The results indicate that the proposedmore »approach performs better than the majority of the existing meta-analysis approaches in terms of both sensitivity as well as specificity. The proposed signatures could be further used in diagnosis, prognosis and identification of therapeutic targets.

    Supplementary information

    Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

    « less