skip to main content

Title: An update on techniques to assess normal-mode behavior of rock arches by ambient vibrations
Abstract. Natural rock arches are rare and beautiful geologic landforms with important cultural value. As such, their management requires periodic assessment of structural integrity to understand environmental and anthropogenic influences on arch stability. Measurements of passive seismic vibrations represent a rapid and non-invasive technique to describe the dynamic properties of natural arches, including resonant frequencies, modal damping ratios, and mode shapes, which can be monitored over time for structural health assessment. However, commonly applied spectral analysis tools are often limited in their ability to resolve characteristics of closely spaced or complex higher-order modes. Therefore, we investigate two techniques well-established in the field of civil engineering through application to a set of natural arches previously characterized using polarization analysis and spectral peak-picking techniques. Results from enhanced frequency domain decomposition and parametric covariance-driven stochastic subspace identification modal analyses showed generally good agreement with spectral peak-picking and frequency-dependent polarizationanalyses. However, we show that these advanced techniques offer the capability to resolve closely spaced modes including their corresponding modal damping ratios. In addition, due to preservation of phase information, enhanced frequency domain decomposition allows for direct and convenient three-dimensional visualization of mode shapes. These techniques provide detailed characterization of dynamic parameters, which can be more » monitored to detect structural changes indicating damage and failure, and in addition have the potential to improve numerical models used for arch stability assessment. Results of our study encourage broad adoption and application of these advanced modal analysis techniques for dynamic analysis of a wide range of geological features. « less
Authors:
; ; ; ;
Award ID(s):
1831283
Publication Date:
NSF-PAR ID:
10378595
Journal Name:
Earth Surface Dynamics
Volume:
9
Issue:
6
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
1441 to 1457
ISSN:
2196-632X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Abstract The dynamic properties of freestanding rock towers are important inputs for seismic stability and vibration hazard assessments, however data describing the natural frequencies, mode shapes, and damping ratios of these landforms remain rare. We measured the ambient vibration of 14 sandstone and conglomerate rock towers and fins in Utah, United States, using broadband seismometers and nodal geophones. Fundamental frequencies vary between 0.8 and 15 Hz—inversely with tower height—and generally exhibit subhorizontal modal vectors oriented parallel to the minimum tower width. Modal damping ratios are low across all features, between 0.6% and 2.2%. We reproduced measured modal attributes in 3D numerical eigenfrequency models for 10 of the 14 landforms, showing that the fundamental mode of these features is full-height bending akin to a cantilever. Fin-like landforms commonly have a torsional second mode whereas tower-like features have a second full-height bending mode subperpendicular to the fundamental. In line with beam theory predictions, our data confirm that fundamental frequencies scale with the ratio of a tower’s width to its squared height. Compiled data from 18 other sites support our results, and taken together, provide guidance for estimating the modal properties of rock towers required for vibration risk assessment and paleoseismic shaking intensity analysismore »in different settings.« less
  2. Abstract Thousands of rock arches are situated within the central Colorado Plateau—a region experiencing small- to moderate-magnitude contemporary seismicity. Recent anthropogenic activity has substantially increased the seismicity rate in some areas, raising questions about the potential for vibration damage of natural arches, many of which have high cultural value. However, predictions of the vibration response and potential for damage at a given site are limited by a lack of data describing spectral amplification of ground motion on these landforms. We analyzed 13 sandstone arches in Utah, computing site-to-reference spectral amplitude ratios from continuous ambient seismic data, and compared these to spectral ratios during earthquakes and teleseismic activity. We found peak ground velocities on arches at their dominant natural modes (in the range of 2–20 Hz) are ∼20–180 times the velocity on adjacent bedrock, due to amplification arising from slender geometry and low modal damping (0.8%–2.7%). Ambient spectral ratios are generally 1.2–2.0 times the coseismic spectral ratios. Because arches experience highly amplified ground motion, the range of earthquakes considered potentially damaging may need to be revised to include lower-magnitude events. Our results have implications for conservation management of these and other culturally valuable landforms.
  3. This work is centered on high-fidelity modeling, analysis, and rigorous experiments of vibrations and guided (Lamb) waves in a human skull in two connected tracks: (1) layered modeling of the cranial bone structure (with cortical tables and diploë) and its vibration-based elastic parameter identification (and validation); (2) transcranial leaky Lamb wave characterization experiments and radiation analyses using the identified elastic parameters in a layered semi analytical finite element framework, followed by time transient simulations that consider the inner porosity as is. In the first track, non-contact vibration experiments are conducted to extract the first handful of modal frequencies in the auditory frequency regime, along with the associated damping ratios and mode shapes, of dry cranial bone segments extracted from the parietal and frontal regions of a human skull. Numerical models of the bone segments are built with a novel image reconstruction scheme that employs microcomputed tomographic scans to build a layered bone geometry with separate homogenized domains for the cortical tables and the diploë. These numerical models and the experimental modal frequencies are then used in an iterative parameter identification scheme that yields the cortical and diploic isotropic elastic moduli of each domain, whereas the corresponding densities are estimated usingmore »the total experimental mass and layer mass ratios obtained from the scans. With the identified elastic parameters, the average error between experimental and numerical modal frequencies is less than 1.5% and the modal assurance criterion values for most modes are above 0.90. Furthermore, the extracted parameters are in the range of the results reported in the literature. In the second track, the focus is placed on the subject of leaky Lamb waves, which has received growing attention as a promising alternative to conventional ultrasound techniques for transcranial transmission, especially to access the brain periphery. Experiments are conducted on the same cranial bone segment set for leaky Lamb wave excitation and radiation characterization. The degassed skull bone segments are used in submersed experiments with an ultrasonic transducer and needle hydrophone setup for radiation pressure field scanning. Elastic parameters obtained from the first track are used in guided wave dispersion simulations, and the radiation angles are accurately predicted using the aforementioned layered model in the presence of fluid loading. The dominant radiation angles are shown to correspond to guided wave modes with low attenuation and a significant out-of-plane polarization. The experimental radiation spectra are finally compared against those obtained from time transient finite element simulations that leverage geometric models reconstructed from microcomputed tomographic scans.« less
  4. Wooden utility poles are one of the most commonly used utility carriers in North America. Even though they are given different protection treatments, wooden utility poles are prone to have defects that are mainly caused by temperature, oxygen, moisture, and high potential hydrogen levels after decades of being exposed in open-air areas. In order to meet the growing demand regarding their maintenance and replacement, an effective health evaluation technology for wooden utility poles is essential to ensure normal power supply and safety. However, the commonly used hole-drilling inspection method always causes extra damage to wooden utility poles and the precision of health evaluation highly relies on technician experience at present. Therefore, a non-destructive health evaluation method with frequency-modulated empirical mode decomposition (FM-EMD) and Laplace wavelet correlation filtering based on dynamic responses of wooden utility poles was proposed in this work. Specifically, FM-EMD was used to separate multiple confusing closely-spaced vibration modes due to nonlinear properties of wooden utility poles into several single modes. The instantaneous frequency and damping factor of the decomposed signal of each single mode of the dynamic response of a wooden utility pole could be determined using Laplace wavelet correlation filtering with high precision. The health statusmore »of a wooden utility pole could then be estimated according to the extracted instantaneous frequency and damping factor of the decomposed signal of each single mode. The proposed non-destructive health evaluation method for wooden utility poles was tested in the field and achieved successful results.« less
  5. This experimental study aims to investigate and compare unsteady surface pressure fluctuations on rigid and compliant panels under a shock-wave/boundary-layer interaction (SBLI) generated by a 20o compression ramp in a Mach 2 wind tunnel. The compliant panel was made of 1mm thick polycarbonate and had a first mode resonant frequency of 407 Hz. High-speed simultaneous pressure-sensitive paint (PSP) and digital image correlation (DIC) techniques allow for examination of the panel surface pressure and panel displacement, respectively, with acquisition frequencies of 20 kHz and 5 kHz respectively. The PSP measurements were also made on the face of the rigid compression ramp and so the effect of fluid-structure interaction on the reattachment dynamics could be explored. The rigid panel pressure measurements demonstrated the spectral content inherent to the SBLI. Spectral analysis of the surface pressure fields revealed that the SBLI shock foot and separation shear layer behave as low- and high-frequency filters, respectively, and the compliant panel showed the similar behavior with the peak frequency at the first mode frequency of the panel (~407Hz). The spectral comparison of pressure fields also depicted that the other modes of the structural panel affected the flow ( at frequency 624 Hz) near the compliant panel’smore »mid-region. The results indicate the panel dynamics have a strong effect on separation- and reattachment-flow dynamics. Modes obtained by spectral proper orthogonal decomposition (SPOD) show good agreement with modes obtained from bandpass filtered displacement and pressure fields.« less