Flat-topped NIR profiles originating from an unmixed helium shell in the Type IIb SN 2020acat
ABSTRACT

The Near Infrared (NIR) spectra of the Type IIb supernova (SN IIb) SN 2020acat, obtained at various times throughout the optical follow-up campaign, are presented here. The dominant He i 1.0830 and 2.0581 $\mu$m features are seen to develop flat-topped P-Cygni profiles as the NIR spectra evolve towards the nebular phase. The nature of the NIR helium peaks imply that there was a lack of mixing between the helium shell and the heavier inner ejecta in SN 2020acat. Analysis of the flat-top features showed that the boundary of the lower velocity of the helium shell was ∼3 − 4 × 103 km s−1. The NIR spectra of SN 2020acat were compared to both SN 2008ax and SN 2011dh to determine the uniqueness of the flat-topped helium features. While SN 2011dh lacked a flat-topped NIR helium profile, SN 2008ax displayed NIR helium features that were very similar to those seen in SN 2020acat, suggesting that the flat-topped feature is not unique to SN 2020acat and may be the product of the progenitors structure.

Authors:
; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
NSF-PAR ID:
10379530
Journal Name:
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society: Letters
Volume:
518
Issue:
1
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
p. L40-L44
ISSN:
1745-3925
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
National Science Foundation
##### More Like this
1. Abstract

We present JWST near-infrared (NIR) and mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopic observations of the nearby normal Type Ia supernova (SN) SN 2021aefx in the nebular phase at +255 days past maximum light. Our Near Infrared Spectrograph (NIRSpec) and Mid Infrared Instrument observations, combined with ground-based optical data from the South African Large Telescope, constitute the first complete optical+NIR+MIR nebular SN Ia spectrum covering 0.3–14μm. This spectrum unveils the previously unobserved 2.5−5μm region, revealing strong nebular iron and stable nickel emission, indicative of high-density burning that can constrain the progenitor mass. The data show a significant improvement in sensitivity and resolution compared to previous Spitzer MIR data. We identify numerous NIR and MIR nebular emission lines from iron-group elements as well as lines from the intermediate-mass element argon. The argon lines extend to higher velocities than the iron-group elements, suggesting stratified ejecta that are a hallmark of delayed-detonation or double-detonation SN Ia models. We present fits to simple geometric line profiles to features beyond 1.2μm and find that most lines are consistent with Gaussian or spherical emission distributions, while the [Ariii] 8.99μm line has a distinctively flat-topped profile indicating a thick spherical shell of emission. Using our line profile fits, we investigatemore »

2. Abstract

We present a JWST/MIRI low-resolution mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopic observation of the normal Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) SN 2021aefx at +323 days past rest-frameB-band maximum light. The spectrum ranges from 4 to 14μm and shows many unique qualities, including a flat-topped [Ariii] 8.991μm profile, a strongly tilted [Coiii] 11.888μm feature, and multiple stable Ni lines. These features provide critical information about the physics of the explosion. The observations are compared to synthetic spectra from detailed non–local thermodynamic equilibrium multidimensional models. The results of the best-fitting model are used to identify the components of the spectral blends and provide a quantitative comparison to the explosion physics. Emission line profiles and the presence of electron capture elements are used to constrain the mass of the exploding white dwarf (WD) and the chemical asymmetries in the ejecta. We show that the observations of SN 2021aefx are consistent with an off-center delayed detonation explosion of a near–Chandrasekhar mass (MCh) WD at a viewing angle of −30° relative to the point of the deflagration to detonation transition. From the strengths of the stable Ni lines, we determine that there is little to no mixing in the central regions of the ejecta. Based on bothmore »

3. ABSTRACT

The ultraviolet (UV) and near-infrared (NIR) photometric and optical spectroscopic observations of SN 2020acat covering ∼250 d after explosion are presented here. Using the fast rising photometric observations, spanning from the UV to NIR wavelengths, a pseudo-bolometric light curve was constructed and compared to several other well-observed Type IIb supernovae (SNe IIb). SN 2020acat displayed a very short rise time reaching a peak luminosity of $\mathrm{{\rm Log}_{10}}(L) = 42.49 \pm 0.17 \, \mathrm{erg \, s^{-1}}$ in only ∼14.6 ± 0.3 d. From modelling of the pseudo-bolometric light curve, we estimated a total mass of 56Ni synthesized by SN 2020acat of MNi = 0.13 ± 0.03 M⊙, with an ejecta mass of Mej = 2.3 ± 0.4 M⊙ and a kinetic energy of Ek = 1.2 ± 0.3 × 1051 erg. The optical spectra of SN 2020acat display hydrogen signatures well into the transitional period (≳ 100 d), between the photospheric and the nebular phases. The spectra also display a strong feature around 4900  Å that cannot be solely accounted for by the presence of the Fe ii 5018 line. We suggest that the Fe ii feature was augmented by He i 5016 and possibly by the presence of N ii 5005. From both photometric and spectroscopic analysis, we inferred that the progenitor of SN 2020acat was an intermediate-mass compact star with an MZAMS of 15–20 M⊙.

4. ABSTRACT SN 1993J is one of the best-studied Type IIb supernovae. Spectropolarimetric data analyses were published over two decades ago at a time when the field of supernova spectropolarimetry was in its infancy. Here, we present a new analysis of the spectropolarimetric data of SN 1993J and an improved estimate of its interstellar polarization (ISP) as well as a critical review of ISP removal techniques employed in the field. The polarization of SN 1993J is found to show significant alignment on the q − u plane, suggesting the presence of a dominant axis and therefore of continuum polarization. We also see strong line polarization features, including H β, He i λ5876, H α, He i λ6678, He i λ7065, and high velocity (HV) components of He i λ5876 and H α. SN 1993J is therefore the second example of a stripped-envelope supernova, alongside iPTF13bvn, with prominent HV helium polarization features, and the first to show a likely HV H α contribution. Overall, we determine that the observed features can be interpreted as the superposition of anisotropically distributed line forming regions over ellipsoidal ejecta. We cannot exclude the possibility of an off-axis energy source within the ejecta. These data demonstrate the rich structures that are inaccessible if solely consideringmore »
5. ABSTRACT We present the data and analysis of SN 2018gjx, an unusual low-luminosity transient with three distinct spectroscopic phases. Phase I shows a hot blue spectrum with signatures of ionized circumstellar material (CSM), Phase II has the appearance of broad SN features, consistent with those seen in a Type IIb supernova at maximum light, and Phase III is that of a supernova interacting with helium-rich CSM, similar to a Type Ibn supernova. This event provides an apparently rare opportunity to view the inner workings of an interacting supernova. The observed properties can be explained by the explosion of a star in an aspherical CSM. The initial light is emitted from an extended CSM (∼4000 R⊙), which ionizes the exterior unshocked material. Some days after, the SN photosphere envelops this region, leading to the appearance of a SN IIb. Over time, the photosphere recedes in velocity space, revealing interaction between the supernova ejecta and the CSM that partially obscures the supernova nebular phase. Modelling of the initial spectrum reveals a surface composition consistent with compact H-deficient Wolf–Rayet and Luminous Blue Variable (LBV) stars. Such configurations may not be unusual, with SNe IIb being known to have signs of interaction so at least somemore »