Graph neural networks (GNNs) have emerged as a powerful tool for modeling graph data due to their ability to learn a concise representation of the data by integrating the node attributes and link information in a principled fashion. However, despite their promise, there are several practical challenges that must be overcome to effectively use them for node classification problems. In particular, current approaches are vulnerable to different kinds of biases inherent in the graph data. First, if the class distribution is imbalanced, then the GNNs' loss function is biased towards classifying the majority class correctly rather than the minority class, which hurts the performance of the latter class. Second, due to homophily effect, the learned representation and subsequent downstream tasks may favor certain demographic groups over others when applied to social network data. To mitigate such biases, we propose a novel framework called Fairness-Aware Cost Sensitive Graph Convolutional Network (FACS-GCN) for classifying nodes in networks with skewed class distributions. Our approach combines a cost-sensitive exponential loss with an adversarial learning component to alleviate the ill-effects of both biases. The framework employs a stagewise additive modeling approach to ensure there is no significant loss in accuracy when imparting fairness into themore »
Information Obfuscation of Graph Neural Networks
While the advent of Graph Neural Networks (GNNs) has greatly improved node and graph representation learning in many applications, the neighborhood aggregation scheme exposes additional vulnerabilities to adversaries seeking to extract node-level information about sensitive attributes. In this paper, we study the problem of protecting sensitive attributes by information obfuscation when learning with graph structured data. We propose a framework to locally filter out pre-determined sensitive attributes via adversarial training with the total variation and the Wasserstein distance. Our method creates a strong defense against inference attacks, while only suffering small loss in task performance. Theoretically, we analyze the effectiveness of our framework against a worst-case adversary, and characterize an inherent trade-off between maximizing predictive accuracy and minimizing information leakage. Experiments across multiple datasets from recommender systems, knowledge graphs and quantum chemistry demonstrate that the proposed approach provides a robust defense across various graph structures and tasks, while producing competitive GNN encoders for downstream tasks.
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- NSF-PAR ID:
- Journal Name:
- International Conference on Machine Learning (ICML)
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
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